Assignment Answers – Implementation of New Programs: EMGT400

Assignment Answers – Implementation of New Programs: EMGT400

1
Operations
Students Name
Professor
Course
Date
2
Question 1
System development is the process of defining, designing, testing and implementatio …

Preview text

1
Operations
Students Name
Professor
Course
Date
2
Question 1
System development is the process of defining, designing, testing and implementation of
new programs and software to ensure efficiency in service delivery. Immature technology
contains flaws preventing users from accessing and enjoying full benefits of technology. System
developers use immature technology, which has benefits and risks that can affect innovations and
technological advancement. It is important to conduct athorough analysis of the technological
use and advancement before deciding on the additional immature technology to use, one that is
cost effective and compatible with the current systems used in the company (Kopf et. al 2016) .
These risks includes unforeseen obstacles in technological advances leads to delays and
substancial costs overruns. This affects technology use because of infrequencies and large
increments in deployed capabilities in industries. Technology must mature within aprogram or
somewhere else before installation to ensure effectiveness and efficiency during usage.
Additionally, immature technology limits navigation and web explorations making itunreliable
to firm ’sdealings with awide range of software programs.
In addition, use of immature technologies is prone to termination because of failure to
meet developer ’starget of converting technological advancements into reliable software. The US
military were forced to terminate the Army ’sfutures combat system and the Navy ’sclass of
guided missiles because of system failure. The new technology failed to match with the
militaries technology because of immaturity thus had to be terminated. Furthermore, immature
technology possess risks to commercial sectors since itaffects product launch dates in
commercial sectors and automotive industries. Slight alterations in product launch dates in
automotive and commercial industries has adverse effects in service delivery and overall
customer relations. Launching products that are not fully to use attracts additional costs including
3
warranty and repair, product failure also creates apoor reputation and this affects customer turn
out. Additionally, immature technology hinders innovations since Company ’sfocus on
monitoring their progress rather than focusing on innovations. Failure of these technologies
results in losses because of huge capital investments; furthermore, itmay lead to temporary
stoppage of activities in other departments since human labor and capital are directed to facilitate
efficiency.
Immature technology have proven successfully in many instances, an outstanding case is
the adoption of Nanotechnologies in industrial applications. Company ’suse matter on a
molecular, atomic and supramolecular scales to enhance efficiencies in industrial productions.
The process also involves manipulation of matter using at least one-dimensional sized particle
from 1to 100 nanometers (Bunker et al, 2012) .Therefore, despite its immaturity nanotechnology
has improvised efficiency in large-scale production in industries. However, this technology
failed to thrive in Web Services Technology with companies reluctant to adopt because of the
immature nature of the technology. A survey conducted by AMR in 350 companies showed that
40% of the firms had not implemented the use of these services and had no plans. The companies
argued that web services are do-it- your self-technologies hence require utmost care and feeding.
Additionally, Austvold suggested that few users had upgraded to their packaged software ’sto the
latest version supporting web services. Therefore, the use of immature technology by system
developers failed in Web Services Technology.
Question 2
Battery life
4
A laptop battery on average lasts about 1000 charges equivalent to 3years of use, after
this period elapses, the user may expect to change the battery. The portability and usage of a
laptop depends on its battery life, laptops with batteries that can work for longer time after
charging are more reliable. Laptops are equipped with power savor software ’sto increase battery
life making itmore reliable. The battery life depends on the programs running on the device and
screen brightness (Lauesen, 2020) .Low brightness and less programs running in the background
extends battery life making alaptop more reliable. Because of its key role in facilitating
continuous usage of the laptop, the battery contributes highly to the overall cost of the laptop.
Storage capacity
The manufacturers installed storage drivers determine alaptop ’sstorage capacity. The
storage capacity is an important consideration since itdetermines the amount of files that can be
stored in the laptop. The higher the storage capacity the more efficient and reliable alaptop is,
larger storage capacities increases speed and storage space hence no need for external storage
devices. Laptops used for browsing and watching Netflix programs require more storage to avoid
instances of lugging during usage. Modern laptops are equipped with 1terabyte storage hard disk
making them efficient and reliable compared to other electronic storage devices. The storage
devices are essential in alaptop, their contributions to the overall cost is determined by their
storage capacity, and those with higher storage capacity contribute more while those with a
lesser capacity contribute the least.
Random Access Memory (RAM)
RAM temporarily stores data in alaptop, these data is important since itis needed by the
processor. It stores data needed by the processor when using the laptop e.g. playing games and
5
watching movies. Data stored is continuously replaced creating space for new data and removing
initially stored data, which is no longer required by the processor. Continuous replacement of
data ensures the ongoing activities is continuous making alaptop more reliable in terms of
performance (Lauesen, 2020) .Laptops with alarger capacity RAM are faster while those with
lower capacity RAM are abit slower. In terms of costs, larger capacity RAMs contribute highly
while lower-capacity ones contribute lowly towards the overall computer price.
Portability
This is the most common outstanding design feature of apersonal laptop computer
compared to adesktop computer. A laptop is highly portable hence; the user easily folds and
carry itto the specific point of use. This makes itaperfect electronic device to use even in
remote areas as compared to the Desktop computer that are used at specific points. Its portability
makes itreliable for field studies and outdoor meetings in companies and other organizations. A
laptop ’sportability has low contribution on the overall costs since the costs are determined by
specifications, installed drives, and not portability.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
It is the main chip controlling all activities is alaptop, itdictates other components in a
laptop on what to do in accordance with the instructions given by main control software. Modern
laptops are equipped with advanced CPU ’sincluding AMD, Intel, Apple and Qualcomm
responsible for increasing speed and reliability. Core i5 laptop are effective for user who value
performance, graphics, and speed of navigation and supports heavy gaming. The Central
Processing Unit has ahigh contribution on alaptops overall cost since is the main components
dictating performance in alaptop.
6
Touch pad
The touchpad of alaptop does the same function as the mouse of adesktop computer. It
control the pointer on the screen allowing for easy navigation of all programs and application in
alaptop. It is more efficient and easy to use making alaptop more reliable compared to adesktop
computer. The touch part has additional features allowing easy selection of contents on and other
functionalities such as copy-pasting documents in different folders in the laptop. A touch pad has
low contribution on the overall costs of alaptop since ithas and additional feature
Question 3
Lack of right tools and skills
Test conducted by unskilled personnel using inappropriate tools are more likely to fail
because of lack of right levels in terms of technical expertise. Companies are reluctant to higher
experts who can write tests scripts since itis difficult, expensive and time consuming. This
instance also applies to acquiring and using the most effective testing tools. Therefore, itis
important to select the most effective testing tools to avoid test failures leading to losses and may
cause injuries to the testers (Zhang et al 2020) .These failures can be diagnosed through analysis
of the types of testers used and their state. Faulty testers proves that the test failure was caused
by use of inappropriate tools. Level of skills is determined by accessing the knowledge and
expertise of people involved in the testing. A good example is conducting similar test using
different tools to ascertain the exact cause of the failure.
Low visibility
7
During testing in industries ,only few individuals execute the processes while the rest of
the group remain unaware of its working. This increases the probability of immediate failure of
the test procedures, resulting from little knowledge by majority of the workers. It is important to
inform the right people on the nature of testers and how they work before commencing test
procedures. It is unreasonable to believe that ahandful of employees can accomplish automated
tests and controls on their own. Additionally, avail all the important information concerning the
devices under test and how the automation framework was configured. During testing, ensure
that all the test procedures are visible to all the members making them conversant with the test
and technological advancements. A good example is the failure is when an oversight broke the
United States government healthcare website because those controlling had little knowledge on
its performance.
Difficulties in testing applications
An effective application being launched need to be easily testable on avariety of levels-
units, integration, systems and acceptance. Incase an appliance is not designed to meet the above
specification then the testing procedure becomes hectic and itis likely to fail. Test failure occurs
because the developers failed to discuss with the concerned team before development
commences on the particular program (Zhang et al., 2020) .A good way to avoid such failure is
drafting Questions and Answers based on the testers and administer to the company ’spersonnel
from the start. This particular type of failure can be identified through careful analysis of the
testers and the qualifications of personnel used to conduct the testing. A good example involves
assessment of training records of personnel involved and the manufacturer of the testing
equipment.
Question 4
8
Cost of the equipment
This the main factor that determine whether to purchase and equipment or manufacture it
locally. A company makes estimates on the importance of the item needed and weighs on
whether to make or buy. A company may be forced to purchase an item even if the costs are high
due to reasons such as, if the product cannot be manufactured locally, itis needed urgently and if
itis only produced by asingle supplier (Spinder, 2018) .For example, acompany may opt to
manufacture an equipment even if itis available at relatively lower costs, this occur if the
product sold does not meet the required standards and if the company has raw materials to
manufacture the item.
Product availability
Product availability in market determines whether acompany will procure or
manufacture their own. A company is likely to prefer buying areadily available equipment in the
market in case itmeets required standards, rather than manufacturing their own because its time
consuming. Alternatively, if the product is not available in the market then the company is forced
to manufacture irrespective of costs and durations (Fill & Visser, 2000) .A good example is in
case acompany wants to undertake technological advancements, acritical analysis on the
availability of the software products on the market will determine whether to procure or task
system developers with the obligation of developing their own.
Availability of resources
A company that do not have access to facilities, equipment and human resource will
calculate the costs of acquiring all this resources versus purchasing from companies having the
finished product. Additionally, the company considers the duration of acquiring all these
9
products and the urgency of the product to be used in production process. In case acompany
suspects delays then itwill go for the readily available products as opposed to manufacturing
their own. A good example is sugar companies need polythene bags that are not produced within
the company; hence, they will likely weigh the options of purchasing manufacturing their own.
Available cash
Large up-front purchases is costly and affects cash availability and consequently the
financial position of an organization. Company ’smay opt to purchase raw materials, since they
are cheaper compared to purchasing ready equipment in the market (Spinder, 2018) .
Alternatively, acompany with more cash prefers purchasing equipment ’sto facilitate continuous
production process. An industrial process may temporarily stop due to the lack of an important
factor in production process, in such instances acompany is forced to procure since
manufacturing will take longer jeopardizing the entire production process. An example is when a
company decides to buy separate pieces of afor along time to prevent op-front purchases hence
less usage of available cash.
Question 5
System engineers produce effective and efficient results through the application of
interdisciplinary approaches in ensuring technical need are transformed into productive processes.
Their ultimate goal in developing support system is eliminating inefficiencies in specified
methods for the purposes of benefitting the parties involved. They play key roles hence
designing and development to ensure validation and continued operation in support systems.
Additionally, they should be involved since they conduct risk analysis and assessment during the
development and designing of support systems (Ford, & Riley, 2003) .System engineers also
10
conduct tests; validate performance and assessment of the total costs to be incurred in launching
and development of support systems. Engineers also analyze the chances of success of the new
system being launched through assessment of available support factors and comparison with the
effectiveness of similar systems launched earlier on.
Supply chain plays various roles in the development of support systems in logistic
companies. The various functions in supply chains include product development and marketing,
operations, distribution and finance regulation and facilitating efficiency in customer services.
Decision support system in supply chain stands for systems that provide valuable information
needed for supporting decision-making processes during the designing and development of
support systems. Spare parts are important to engineers during the designing of support systems
since they ensure high productivity. Availability of spare parts allow them to meet or exceed
anticipated production goals and the development of support system is done using the best
available parts. Systems developers must consider the availability of spare parts before
approving its design and subsequent use in support systems.
Training and documentations ensures that those taking part in developing support
systems are well trained and their progress is monitored and documented in various written
sources. Documentation can be inform of reports, specifications, drawing plans, computers
software and surveys. Documentation ensures that all activities are recorded and can easily be
retrieved for future use by the management, stakeholders and sponsors (Haberfellner et. al 2019) .
It is crucial to have technical skills and expertise and this facilitates efficiency in service delivery
and greater contribution in design and decision-making processes during development of support
systems. Training is also important before launching any system since employees are given a
chance to familiarize with the new systems being launched by the company. Employees will
11
familiarize hence can handle any emergencies arising during usage and operations of the systems.
Training will also help in curbing resistance from employees who hesitate to embrace change
and instead prefer to stick to their old systems of operations.
12
References
Bunker, K. L., Wolfe, J., & Wu, L. (2012). Integrating nanotechnology into the life sciences:
lessons learned. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology ,
5(1), 1583-1596.
Deac, C. N., Deac, G. C., Chiscop, F., & Popa, C. L. (2019). Methods to identify time series
abnormalities and predicting issues caused by component failures. In MATEC Web of
Conferences (Vol. 290, p. 02002). EDP Sciences.
Fill, C., & Visser, E. (2000). The outsourcing dilemma: acomposite approach to the make or buy
decision. Management decision .
Ford, J. D., & Riley, L. A. (2003). Integrating communication and engineering education: A look
at curricula, courses, and support systems. Journal of Engineering Education ,92 (4), 325-
328.
Haberfellner, R., Nagel, P., Becker, M., Büchel, A., & von Massow, H. (2019). Systems
engineering (p. 5). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Jim énez-Parra, B., Rubio, S., & Vicente-Molina, M. A. (2014). Key drivers in the behavior of
potential consumers of remanufactured products: astudy on laptops in Spain. Journal of
Cleaner Production ,85 ,488-496.
Kopf, R., Schlesinger, L., Peters, S., & Lanza, G. (2016). Adjusting the factory planning process
when using immature technologies. Procedia CIRP ,41 ,1011-1016.
Lauesen, S. (2020). IT project failures, causes and cures. IEEE Access ,8,72059-72067.
13
McMahon, M., & Pospisil, R. (2005). Laptops for adigital lifestyle: Millennial students and
wireless mobile technologies. Proceedings of the Australasian Society for Computers in
Learning in Tertiary Education ,2,421-431.
Medina Serrano, R., Gonz ález-Ram írez, R., Gasc ó,J. L., & Llopis, J. (2020). Strategic sourcing:
Developing aprogressive framework for make-or-buy decisions.
Park, P. J. (2009). ChIP –seq: advantages and challenges of amaturing technology. Nature
reviews genetics ,10 (10), 669-680.
Shiau, C. S., Tseng, I.H., Heutchy, A. W., & Michalek, J. (2007, January). Design optimization
of alaptop computer using aggregate and mixed logit demand models with consumer
survey data. In International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers
and Information in Engineering Conference (Vol. 48078, pp. 175-185).
Spinder, J. A. (2018). Spare parts in manufacturing SMEs –Strategic make-or-buy decisions in
spare parts management (Doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen. Faculty of
Economics and Business).
Zhang, J. M., Harman, M., Ma, L., & Liu, Y. (2020). Machine learning testing: Survey,
landscapes and horizons. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering .

Order Now

QUALITY: 100% ORIGINAL PAPER – NO PLAGIARISM – CUSTOM PAPER