Assignment Answers Pdf Of Durability And Serviceability:MCS502

Assignment Answers Pdf Of Durability And Serviceability:MCS502

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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS REPORT
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STUDENTS DECLARATION
☐ Iunderstand that this assessment will still be subject to normal academic integrity che …

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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS REPORT
2
STUDENTS DECLARATION
☐ Iunderstand that this assessment will still be subject to normal academic integrity checks, and
any anomalies, will be investigated.
Icertify that the attached assessment is my own work and that any material drawn from other
sources has been acknowledged.
Iam aware that the Engineering Institute of Technology (EIT) uses text-matching software to
check student submissions as well as safeguard my own work against any potential academic
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authorisation will be sought from me on the relevant form.
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made every effort to try and source the above
☐ Iunderstand that Iwill not be proctored during this assessment and will not use the internet
incorrectly to research the answers.
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Executive summary:
The thesis of this report is for the structural engineer to make use of Portland and mixed
cement, in addition to steel reinforcing, in the construction of the most cost-effective approach to
construct ahigh-rise with ten stories is to use astructure with aground floor, ten intermediate
levels, and aroof. The roof may be flat due to the structure’s height (Naeem, M.M., 2022 p34).
The basic steel structure is constructed using acombination of built-up sections, hot rolled
sections, and cold-formed components, and is then covered with achoice of insulated panels for
the roofing and wall cladding. If you’re looking for asystem that can be installed in amatter of
minutes and that’s both energy-efficient and low in weight, then you’ve found itin this design
concept.
There are two main objectives in this project report: to analyze and design afully steel-
framed residential building (G+10) with aground floor and ten floors (G+10), as well as the
design of aconcrete foundation (RCC). Australian Building Code requirements must be met for
the design, analysis, production, and installation of the structure, among other things. To
complete this job, we had to plan, investigate, and design aresidential construction (Huang, Q.,
2022 P23) .Building plans are created using AutoCAD software before being transferred into
STAAD Pro and Etabs for further study.
About live load, dead load, seismic load, and wind load, aG+10-story residential
building was shown to be very resilient. For each member, the kind of load applied and the
amount of that load are used to determine its dimensions (beam, column, and slab). Structural
members may be identified by their length, height, depth, size, and number, among other
attributes, in Auto CAD. The STADD Pro program offers the ability to calculate the outcomes of
calculations based on This section provides abrief discussion of how the beams are designed for
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flexure (shear), tension (tension), and buckling (flexure). The frame analysis was carried out
using STAAD-Pro. The slab, beams, footings, and stairwell were all designed in accordby600.
Attributes like sharing deflection torsion and development length are part of the IS coding
standards (Ramesh, G., 2021 P94) ..The column and footing designs were based on the AS 4100
and SP-16 design charts. The AS 4100 Code includes one-way shear and two-way shear tests as
part of its provision for inspection. The layout of the rectangular footing and stairway are all
accomplished via the application of the limit state approach. Sketch, manual design, and STADD
Pro’s geometrical model can’t compete with these outcomes.
To reduce loadings eccentricity, itis advised that the principal beams be supported
centrally on the columns. All structural components will be made of M25 gradeM25-grade.
These areas, as well as ground level and first floor, are composed of M30 concrete, which is a
higher grade. The diameters of the columns up to the plinth have been increased, even if the
upper floors’ columns maintain their original proportions. The floor will instantly rest on the
ground since there are no slabs on the lower level. Ground beams crossing through columns are
the only viable tie beams because of this. Consequently, the ground level does not have floor
beams. To maximize the number of main beams benefiting from the flanged beam effect,
secondary floor beams are positioned in such amanner that they operate as simply supported
girders. There will be no consideration given to seismic loads acting vertically, even if they are
horizontal (along with either of the two major axes) and hence are technically acting.
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Contents
Executive summary: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
Introduction. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
Concrete ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
Masonry ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
Steel-framed structures ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Composite Structures. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Piling Code ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
Earth-Retaining Structures. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
The Portland and Blended Cement Standards applicable to Australia …………………………………… 15
Setting Time Stages of Portland and Blended Cement ………………………………………………………… 16
(i) Hydrolysis and hydration stage: ……………………………………………………………………………. 16
(ii) Colloidisation stage: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
(iii) Crystallization stage: …………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
Strength Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Shrinkage ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Thermal Expansion …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
Resistance to Chemical Attack …………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
Resistance to High Temperature …………………………………………………………………………………… 19
Resistance to Freezing and Thawing …………………………………………………………………………….. 20
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The volume of Permeable Voids (VPV, AS 1012.21) Method. ……………………………………………. 21
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
Appendix ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
The design data shall be: ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Unit load calculations: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
Gravity Loads: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
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Introduction.
The construction of houses and other structures is one of the oldest human pursuits. From
the earliest days of building, construction technology has evolved from the rudimentary methods
of the past to what we know today as modern house construction. Steel sections for residential
constructions are currently being built utilizing aprocedure that needs the highest aesthetic look,
high quality, and specifications of construction, as well as cost-effective and imaginative. New
standards for sustainability, thermal and acoustic performance, as well as other issues, influence
the design of homes and residential constructions. The requirement to decrease land use while
simultaneously boosting the social features of the built environment, which is driven by
environmental concerns, has adirect influence on the choice of building systems.
Multi-story structures are becoming more popular as away of housing people in urban
areas due to congestion and the high cost of land. To guarantee that astructure serves its
intended function and can withstand the forces that will be exerted on itover its useful life, itis
necessary to do structural analysis. Structural engineers must have ascientific grasp of structural
engineering in or denote the whole process of planning and designing structures. Anecdotal
evidence and judgment support this claim. It took along time and alot of effort to plan, research,
and design ahouse for this project. For the study and design of the building, STAAD Pro is
utilized, and AUTO-CAD is imported.
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Concrete
For concrete buildings, the AS 36002.2 standard provides the design value. Because they
account for the variability inherent in concrete production as well as the subsequent construction
methods, characteristic values like the letters F’ and C are often used (Venkatesh, K., 2021 p139) .
A more accurate prediction of the member or structure’s in-service behavior can be made using
average values instead of specific ones, like Ec. AS 3600 states that design attributes must be
taken into account either as aspecified value or as determined by tests performed on concrete
constructed using the indicated materials. Alternatively, historical records of concrete that are
similar to the present specimen might be used to estimate values. The designer needs to take into
consideration the time itwill take to receive the results and any delays that may arise if records
are unavailable.
Strength to withstand tearing (compressive strength) By AS 3600 In Clause 3.1.1.1, a
max strength of 100 MPa is defined as the standard strength for the following values: 20-25 32-
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40 50-65 80-100 there is a25 percent increase in the strength of each grade in this series over the
strength of the grade preceding it. Durability and serviceability are more important than real-
world structural criteria when itcomes to structural parts like slabs and beams. On the other side,
columns and walls may be rated on their load-carrying capacity, or strength, rather than their
aesthetics. Because they are more expensive, nonstandard strength ratings (also known as
“special-class concretes”) are known as “special-class concretes.” It may be required to do
project testing to ensure that the related properties, such as shrinkage, are properly appraised.
Concrete’s saturated-surface-dry density: must be between 1800 and 2800 kg/m3 to meet
AS 3600 requirements. Coarse aggregate density and water-to-cement ratio influence plain
concrete’s density. A density of 2400 kg/m3 is recommended for normal-weight unreinforced
concrete by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Reinforcement must be taken into
consideration while dealing with reinforced concrete. As arule of thumb, the unit weight of
reinforced or pre-stressed concrete should be 2500 kg/m3 (25 kN/m3) for designing structures.
Reinforced concrete has adensity of 24 kN/m3 according to AS 1170.12.4, and that density rises
by 0.6 kN/m3 for every 1percent increase in
reinforcement.
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Properties of standard concrete grades
Masonry
Strength In masonry, compressive strength is the resistance to load that may be quantified
by the amount of pressure necessary to crush aunit. According to conventional measurement, the
pressure is equal to the force in kilo-newton (kN) multiplied by 1000 and divided by the loaded
area in square millimeters (mm2) (mm2). Unconfined compressive strength is computed by
multiplying compressive strength by an aspect ratio, Ka (AS4456.4, Table 1). (AS4456.4, Table
1). The aspect ratio is obtained by dividing the unit height by the unit thickness of the unit. The
compressive strength of asolid brick will be diminished if itis crushed on its end rather than on
its flat surface, as is frequently done when designing with solid brick. Using the aspect ratio to
convert both tests to the same unconfined compressive strength, is theoretically conceivable.
(Huang, Q., 2022 P96). To estimate the strength of hollow blocks, divide the applied force by
the number of face shells. Even though the compressive strength of a90mm hollow and 90mm
solid block is the same (10MPa), the hollow block’s face shells have an area that is roughly half
that of asolid block, and consequently can only carry half the weight of the solid.
Durability Masonry erected for ‘Durability’ is regarded to be compliant when itsatisfies
the standards of AS3700 and defines which extents required Exposure, General Purpose is to
protect categories of masonry construction. AS/NZS4456.10 defines the criteria for assessing
these grades. Resistance to the effects of salt. The following is how AS3700 defines the
applicability of each of these grades: Protege Grade (Protege Grade) (PRO) (PRO) above the
damp-proof course, components in non-marine outdoor settings may be used. Flashing
connections with other building components and atop covering (roof or coping) should be used
in outdoor circumstances when the damp-proof course is not present.
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Steel-framed structures
AS/NZS 5131 is suggested for bolting assemblies since itspecifies weathering steel,
which has been added to AS 4100. To achieve the criteria of AS/NZS 3678 or AS/NZS 1594,
weathering steel assemblies must be manufactured using steel that is more resistant to
atmospheric corrosion than normal. Galvanic corrosion, amajor health danger, may occur if
HDG fasteners are used with weathering steel, which is why they should never be used with
weathering steel.
An alternative high-strength fastener may be substituted for bolts adhering to AS/NZS
1252, as long as proof of their equivalent is given (Venkatesh, K., 2021 p75) .To satisfy EN
14399-3 specifications, AS 4100 may be used with EN 14399-3 HR K2 and EN 14399-10 HRC
assemblies. The following requirements must be met or exceeded by identical fasteners: AS/NZS
1252 is the standard for the chemical composition and mechanical properties of similar fasteners
(Australian Standard for Fasteners).
It’s important to keep in mind that abolt’s bearing area is larger than the diameters of the
body, head, and nuts. Even if asimilar fastener’s technique of tensioning and inspection differs
from that defined in AS 4100, itmust meet the minimum tension and the process must be
examined. A comparable fastener may be tensioned in amanner different from AS 4100’s
specifications.
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Composite Structures.
Multi-story construction activity in Australia allowed for the creation of steel-concrete
buildings using concrete and steel components. Australian Standards for Concrete Structures,
AS1480-1974 (Standards Australia 1974a), and Australian Standards for Steel Structures,
AS1250-1975, allowing for the construction of composite steel-concrete structures (Standard
Australia, 1975). The notions of working stress influenced the development of both of these
criteria. AS 1480-1974 stated that the compressive strength of concrete was restricted to between
15 and 50 MPa (N/mm2), depending on the kind of concrete used. 230-410 MPa (N/mm2) was
the highest permissible value for the tensile strength of the steel reinforcement under AS1480-
1974.
For steel, the maximum allowable yield stress is 450 MPa (N/mm2), as specified by
AS1250-1975. Besides these two standards, asupplement to AS1480-1974 for the construction
of composite steel-concrete structures in buildings was also developed (Standards Australia,
1974b). Following this period, the Australian Standard AS 2327.1-1980, established in 1980,
allowed for the construction of composite steel-concrete beams. (Australian Standards, 1980)
Concrete stress in compression and steel stress in tension was kept to aminimum using a
working stress design approach, and the standard was only applied to constructions with simply
supported beams as the structural component.
Piling Code
There are times when pilings are preferred over shallow foundations when lateral loads or
poor soil conditions exist on the building site. To avoid piles, soil alteration techniques may be
utilized; although these operations can be expensive, and in this case, piles maybe even more
cost-effective. For the Foundation Design module, all piles must be designed to Australian
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Standards (AS 2159 & 3600). For apile, the geotechnical strength must be computed. The pile
end bearings and skin or shaft friction manage all of the vertical loads that are imparted to piles.
A geotechnical reduction factor is multiplied by the ultimate geotechnical strength AS 2159
Section 4.3.1 to arrive at the design geotechnical strength (Rd,g) (g).
Design considerations will be made for the pile’s strength, serviceability, and long-term
durability. Static analysis based on soil shearing resistance, static load testing, dynamic analysis
based on the wave equation or other driving formulas largely based on penetration resistance,
and dynamic load testing may all be used to evaluate the ultimate strength of piles. While
constructing piles, keep in mind that they will be subjected to scour and uplift due to wind and
water erosion, as well as shrinkage and consolidation, as well as shifts in the groundwater table.
Earth-Retaining Structures.
The structural stability of the structure as awhole under ultimate calculated loads, as well
as the serviceability of the structure and its components under service load, are some of the
design limit states that must be considered. With the use of partial-loading and partial-material
factors in the design process, different levels of confidence can be assigned to assumed or
measured soil strengths, material strengths and deterioration resistance, predictability of load
distribution, and the consequences of failure for various structures. When itcomes to structural
loading factors, there are several elements to consider, including AS 4678-2002 and the SAA
Loading Code. Retaining walls are often constructed in clearer structures, which increases the
stress on them (Huang, Q., 2022 P78) .A building’s basement walls, for example, are often
required to withstand the weight of the surrounding soil.
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The following approach will be adopted as aconsequence. Active soil loads resulting
from point live loads, line live loads, and uniform live load surcharges are considered in addition
to overturning live loads (imposed loads). There are two types of loads that produce overturning
(permanent loads): active soil loads created by the fill’s weight and structural component loads
generated near the rotating point. Except for the circumstances detailed later down in this section,
all overturned live and dead cargoes are taken into account by AS 4678. If alive load may be
present in one area that produces net overturning while concurrently absent from another
location, the following load combinations and factors must be applied to structural components,
including any related concrete, masonry, and reinforcement: Two factors are multiplied to
account for the position that provides net stability: 1.5 and 0.
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The Portland and Blended Cement Standards applicable to Australia
A partly fused product arising from the combining of calcium and argillaceous materials
or other silica, aluminum, or iron-bearing materials or mixtures of these components, and
burning them at clinkering temperatures, according to the Australian Standard AS3972.
Additional “mineral additions” are described as amixture of fly ash, iron blast furnace slag,
limestone, or any combination of these materials. In order to make cement, Portland clinker,
calcium sulfate, and up to 5% mineral addition are mixed together to produce acementitious
substance. When compared to Portland cement, blends comprise more than 5% fly ash or slag or
the mixture of these two elements. General Purpose Portland Cement, General Purpose Blended
Cement, Low Heat Cement, Sulfate Resistant Cement, and Shrinkage Limited Cement are some
of the types of cement that are available.
“Cement” is defined as ahydraulic binder consisting of Portland or mixed cement that
may be used alone or in conjunction with one or more additional cementitious components in
AS1379. AS1379 includes fly ash in its definition of cement, which means that itmay be used in
Normal or Special Class Concrete, either as ablended cement or as adirect addition to the
concrete at the batching plant. Fresh and hardened concrete attributes such as workability,
compressive strength, and other properties, as well as more general criteria are included in this
Standard (10). For each grade of Normal Class Concrete in the Standard Specification, AS1379
requires aminimum 7-day compressive strength for fly ash and other Supplementary
Cementitious Materials (SCMs)
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Setting Time Stages of Portland and Blended Cement
Concrete setting time is sometimes referred to as the time ittakes for this process to
complete. It might take anything from afew minutes to an hour or more to get from aplastic
mass to anon-plastic mass. According to current thinking, achemical process known as cement
setting occurs in three distinct stages.
(i) Hydrolysis and hydration stage:
Once the water is added to the mixture, the first stage starts. Cement chemicals C3S, C2S,
3CA1, and 4CAFe are all hydrated during this time. In both the first and second compounds,
hydrolysis occurs. Complex hydro silicates are formed as aresult of this process. Hydro silicate
crystals are broken down into agel, which acts as an adhesive for the other particles in their
immediate vicinity. Because of this, the cement begins to set. Once itreaches this point, the
mortar is entirely saturated and can no longer take in any more water.
(ii) Colloidisation stage:
At this point, the bulk of the constituents is crystallized from agel or colloidal condition.
It is the most unstable calcium hydro aluminate and calcium hydroxide colloids that initiate the
crystallization process since they are the first to go through astable crystal phase transition.
(iii) Crystallization stage:
The dense mass of crystals and gels formed as aconsequence of the almost simultaneous
creation of crystals and hardening of gel is linked and inter-grown. In terms of temperature,
cement hardening varies from cement setting. In layman’s terms, the cement can withstand the
weight of aload without dissolving or fracturing under the pressure. As aconsequence, although
cement may harden in minutes or hours, itmay take days, weeks, months, or even years for itto
be ready for use
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Strength Development
Due to the technical significance and widespread use of structural applications of
concrete, the development of mechanical characteristics over time is dependent on the dynamics
of physical and chemical changes in the natural property of mineral binding material. Numerous
attempts have been made from the beginning at the quantitative estimation of these changes over
time. It was stated using many empirical equations with different time periods and degrees of
precision.
The development of concrete strength over time is influenced by avariety of factors,
which can be divided into two categories: xthe group of material and structural factors that result
from physical and chemical changes caused by the composition and characteristics of the binding
material and the composite produced from it, and xthe group of external factors, such as
temperature and moisture, that stimulate or impede the dynamics of structural changes in the
concrete.
Shrinkage
The term “shrinking” refers to adecrease in the volume of aconcrete structure over time.
When cement is hydrated, its volume changes due to the effects of hydration on the cement and
the drying process on concrete as aconsequence of water lost in the paste. Keeping an eye on the
following can help you avoid or minimize shrinkage. This kind of concrete constraint is caused
by the foundation, astructural element, or some other circumstance.
Regularly spaced concrete construction joints may help keep this under control. Adequate
expansion joints will assist to limit the cracking of concrete caused by this reduction in lateral
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constraints (Venkatesh, K., 2021 p103) .The association between temperature and relative
humidity, as well as the link between relative humidity and evaporation, is well-known.
Elastomeric modulus is acritical factor in aggregate strength and resistance to breakage and
shrinkage. Shrinkage is influenced by the water-to-cement ratio as well as the cement
concentration. As the cement content rises, the shrinkage becomes worse.
Thermal Expansion
Temperature changes cause materials to expand or contract. Most materials expand when
heated, whereas cooling causes them to contract. Temperature fluctuations may cause concrete to
expand or contract organically if itis allowed to distort. Even whether it’s askyscraper or an
interstate highway, aconcrete building isn’t immune to the effects of temperature changes simply
because it’s enormous. The structure’s expansion and contraction in response to temperature
changes occur irrespective of the structure’s cross-sectional area.
The best way to prevent cracking is to utilize joints. Concrete will crack in apattern tied
to the temperature and constraint directory if there are no properly spaced connections to enable
temperature mobility in along length of concrete. Grooves, forms, and sawed cuts are formed
into sidewalks, driveways, pavement, floors, and walls to prevent cracking in control joints from
curing in the joints themselves rather than in the surrounding region. As aresult of heat
shrinkage, contraction joints may be employed to create cracks in aslab or awall at
predetermined locations. A contraction joint may be created by making acontinuous cut through
the top of the slab using amasonry saw. One of the most cost-effective ways to make a
contraction junction is using this method.
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Resistance to Chemical Attack
Portland cement concrete, on the whole, has alow acid resistance. However, itis possible
to tolerate certain weak acids if they are only exposed on an as-needed basis. There are three
approaches to increasing ease concrete’s acid resistance: Using the suitable concrete composition
to make itas impermeable as feasible; sealing itoff from the environment with an appropriate
coating, or modifying the environment to make itless acidic.
It is possible to decrease the acid attack on concrete by taking into consideration the
concrete’s porosity. Having alesser porosity means that acid attacks on concrete are less likely.
Concrete may be treated with an acid-resistant coating to increase its resistance to acid as an
alternate option (Naeem, M.M., 2022 p88). Acid tolerance was significantly improved by
combining fly ash and micro silica fume. Because of the usage of fly ash, the cement paste and
aggregates were packed more tightly, resulting in better performance. As aconsequence of this
pozzolanic interaction between the micro silica fume and calcium hydroxide, its concentration in
the binder matrix is reduced. This also enhances the material’s acid resistance. Fly ash is needed
to create micro-fractures, however micro silica vapors on their own may facilitate acid
penetration. As more fly ash is produced, the ion concentration of the fly ash rises and shrinkage
decreases, resulting in decreased likelihood of fractures. Using micro silica alone resulted in a
reduction in acid resistance, avalidation of this finding.
Resistance to High Temperature
In the scientific world, thermal resistance is typically referred to as the inverse of thermal
conductivity. Thermal resistance is ameasure of asubstance’s ability to withstand the passage of
heat through it. Insulators are materials that have high thermal resistance and are often used to
maintain or trap acertain temperature (Ramesh, G., 2021 P56) .A Styrofoam cooler, for example,
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is used to keep drinks cold after they have been stored inside because itis slow to transport heat
from its surroundings into the enclosed chilled zone. Thermal resistance is an important
consideration in the design of alarge number of everyday objects used all over the globe.
Recently, research into finding anew material that may be added to acement mix to
enhance the cement’s heat resistance has increased. Cement is made by combining avariety of
ingredients, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, and water. Even though cement is seldom
produced in ahomogenous way, the particle sizes fluctuate throughout the mix Cement’s lack of
a”perfect formula” enables for awide range of diverse components to be included in the mixture.
To improve cement’s heat resistance and strength, recent research examined the benefits and
drawbacks of adding magnetite powder to the mix.
Resistance to Freezing and Thawing
When water freezes, itexpands by around 9%. Concrete cracks as water freeze the
concrete to expand and contract. The cavity will expand and rupture if the pressure within
exceeds the concrete’s tensile strength, allowing the trapped air to escape (Venkatesh, K., 2021
p125) .Due to repeated freeze-thaw cycles and paste and aggregate disturbance, the concrete may
expand and fracture or crumble due to the scaling and crumbling of the aggregates. The only
method to protect your concrete from freeze/thaw damage is to use ahigh-quality concrete sealer.
Using Siloxa-Tek 8500 or Siloxa-Tek 8505 sealants can help you keep water out of your
concrete slabs. A structural bond between the concrete and these compounds makes them
excellent penetrating sealers, keeping them safe from water and another element over the long
term. Because no water can get into the concrete now that winter is here, you won’t have to
worry about cracks in your foundation when the cold weather has passed. Depending on the
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engineer’s requirements, Siloxa-Tek 8500 or Siloxa-Tek 8505 should be added to every casting
process.
The volume of Permeable Voids (VPV, AS 1012.21) Method.
An AS 1012.21-based VPV test process is used to measure this standard, which is the
only Australian standard. For this test, capillary suction offers an indicator of empty spaces
inside the concrete (such as capillary pores and gel pores, air voids, and micro-cracks) that might
collect water during immersion and subsequent boiling.
Capillary pores, gel pores, air voids, and micro-cracks, which may absorb water during
immersion and subsequent boiling as aresult of capillary suction, can be measured by the VPV
test method, which is used to assess the linked void space within the concrete. In this case, itis
because of the ease with which water may permeate concrete, causing corrosion. There are a
variety of factors that influence aconcrete’s water absorption capacity (Naeem, M.M., 2022 p76) .
Accordingly, itis thought that less permeability concrete will better withstand ahostile
environment than more permeable concrete. The amount of vitrified polyvinyl chloride (VPV) in
concrete affects its durability, which is measured by how long itcan withstand asevere
environment.
Prequalification of concrete mixes and curing regimes, as well as quality control in cast-
in-place work, including sprayed concrete and the production of precast concrete products, has
been routinely used for decades by the construction industry. VPV is also used as aquality
assurance tool in the construction industry. Condition surveys of existing concrete structures may
also benefit from using this method. There are several steps in the testing process of repeatability
and reproducibility, only the VPV test (VPV value of 0.3) has been shown across labs (i.e.,
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findings between different laboratories are within 4percent, VPV value of 0.4) Compared to the
existing condition, the repeatability of compressive strength is around 10%, which is a
substantial increase. Reproducibility and repeatability have not been shown in other test
protocols. Using this instrument, concrete mix components may be monitored and adjustments
can be made, with aparticular emphasis on the overall water content in the mix itself.
Conclusion
On our initial visit to the location, we noticed that the soil’s composition is mostly formed
of clay. Sulfate minerals in clay soil were found via laboratory examination of samples of clay
soil. Stabilizers containing calcium provide ahigh pH environment when mixed with water
during construction (Venkatesh, K., 2021 p145) n. Ettringite and perhaps traumatize are thought
to be created when sulfate-bearing salts are present in soils that have high pH conditions and the
usage of lime and cement, which are the most prevalent ground stabilization procedures, are
present.
Certain situations enable the use of Fly as acementitious material according to the
Australian Standard Concrete Code (AS3600). However, there are no suggestions for asulfates-
resistant concrete design in this document.AS 1379, the Specification and Manufacturing of
Concrete, does not help with the situation (Ramesh, G., 2021 P196) .Moreover. To stay up with
the current trend toward performance criteria, AS3972, Portland cement, and Blended Cement
have lately undergone substantial changes as revealed by the Standard Committee when
developing an appropriate test for sulfate resistance that some of the cement supplied in Australia
as Type SR (sulfate resistant) did not pass the draft test methods of the committee. With either
Type GP or SR cement, the specifier has been assured that the cement would be resistant to
sulfate, letting itmeet the performance requirement.
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Ramesh, G., 2021. Design and Analysis of Residential Building using STAAD-Pro. AUSTRILIA
Journal of Engineering ,18 (49), pp.185-190.
Venkatesh, K., 2021. Design and Analysis of Irregular Building Using STAAD Pro Without
Earthquake Load. International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary
Topics ,2(11), pp.31-34.
24
Appendix
The design data shall be:
25
Unit load calculations:
By AS 3600 In Clause 3.1.1.1,
26
Gravity Loads:

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