Data Collection and Analysis ENGM60092

Data Collection and Analysis ENGM60092

Using remote teams to maintain project integrity as part of business continuity plans in managing
projects has become an unavoidable …

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Using remote teams to maintain project integrity as part of business continuity plans in managing
projects has become an unavoidable a spect of today’s project management scenario . Since the
beginning of the Covid -19 pandemic outbreak, people have started working remotely . The
purpose of the research is to investigate the project integrity segment to develop an efficient
business continuity plan in the construction sector . Primary qualitative analysis has been
included by interviewing 20 Irania n construction project manager here. I also discuss ethical
considerations and limitations of the study in this chapter. In order to justify the findings, Critical
Incident Technique (CIT) based approach of analysis has been considered in the methodology
segment . In the fourth chapter, I present and interpret the data from which defined that remote
teams in construction sector tends to create difficulties . The final chapter provides a conclusion
based on the core ideas from the study as well as explains how the objectives are met. Mostly,
the findings denoted that remote teams can be advantageous for the administrative work
purposes. Finally, I make recommendations for strategically utilising remote teams. Overall, the
research contributes to the existing li terature on remote working effectiveness by explaining the
impact of remote working on construction sector.
Chapter 4 Data collection and analysis
4.1 Introduction
The term data analysis can be contemplated as a process that includes inspection,
cleaning, and modelling data based on useful information discovery for supporting the decision –
making process ( Arifin 2018; Viergever 2019 ). This chapter intends to provide a basic analysis
of the process of data collection attributes in a consolidated man ner. In order to depict these
aspects, a clear data collection, triangulation and data tables will be presented here. Additionally,
findings associated with the idea of development, as well as discussion linked to it, will be
suggested here to ensure a pro per development process. Furthermore, a discussion based on the
information found here for providing a clearer idea of the process will be provided in this
4.2 Data collection and triangulation
In order to further explore the idea of remote wor kplace’s impact on maintaining project
integrity, focus on a qualitative study analysis will be done with a clear exploratory approach.
The exploratory data will be collected with a systematic definition based on the steps followed
for CIT. the core proces s followed for collecting data here has been done with five key stages,
which helped to consolidate a case study based on the interview conducted with a purposive
sampling method with 20 employees with experience in the discussing context of remote
working as well as project integrity maintenance. Research triangulation defines using multiple
subsets of data to address specific research questions. Likewise, the key findings have been
triangulation in this specific research based on the key extracts from pri mary qualitative data
4.3 Tables of interview transcript
Question by/Answer
Interviewer How do you believe remote working helps or constraints maintain project
integrity and can become important for business continuity?
Interviewee 1 “Yes, I believe remote working can only help in project integrity in case
there is a proper communication plan in place. As communication enacts
as the underlying parameter of engaging employees, which is important for
business continuity, a remote workforce with effective communication can
help in terms of strategic growth. In construction sector, it might help only
in the administrative process ”
Interviewee 2 “I think the newly appeared trend regarding remote working is actually
constraini ng project integrity. Even if employee engagement is effective
and the communication parameter is properly maintained, conveying the
level of importance and implying moral laws and regulations gets difficult
and hampers business continuity.”
Interviewee 3 “In my opinion, remote working tends to create difficulties and increase
issues for project managers, which ultimately leads to lagging project ideas
and difficulties in managing business continuity. In construction sector,
even more challenges happen a s the complexity of the sector is higher ”
Interviewee 4 “I believe the communication segment is the key to this, in case the
communication parameter of an organisation has a strong foundation,
critical issues regarding progressing with a specific project may create
difficulties and even lead to an unsuccessful project.”
Interviewee 5 “In my opinion, for some businesses related to I.T., marketing and others,
maybe it can help increase employee productivity thus improving the
chances of business continuity. However, construction sector’s complexity
makes it diff icult to incorporate these changes ”
Interviewee 6 “I think there are two aspects that derive whether remote work for a
specific project will be successful or become ineffective. These factors
include communication and industry type. For example, remote work in
industries like construction and manufacturing may create difficulties;
however, in I.T. or marketing -related projects, the remote working method
can be effective.”
Interviewee 7 “I feel commun ication parameters cannot be properly maintained in remote
working; thus, maintaining project integrity, which relies on engagement’s
foundational aspect, gets difficult. In the construction sector, even more
challenges tend to occur due to the complexity of the sector ”
Interviewee 8 “I believe effective business continuity depends on proper information
sharing and respecting other team members for delivering the promised
aspects. However, due to lack of transparency in the process, remote
working cannot accommodate these aspects due to which critical issues
may emerge and create difficulties.”
Interviewee 9 “I have realised that complete remote work increases team dynamics issues
and creates difficulties in terms of strategic growth. Apart from that,
developing good team dynamics somehow gets affected in case they are
working in a team which may create difficulties in maintaining effective
project integrity.”
Interviewee 10 “I believe that remote work in the workplace has helped us during Corona;
howe ver, proceeding with the same for long term growth will not assist the
organisation as employee engagement, retention and related aspects may
be difficult.”
Interviewee 11 “I believe deterioration of project integrity aspects has been accelerated
with re mote work. However, it can work for a short time development.”
Interviewee 12 “In my perspective, an improved level of communication parameters is
required for maintaining the integrity and overall effectiveness. However,
in maximum cases, these critical challenges may create difficulties
maintaining the integrity.”
Interviewee 13 “As per my experience in this domain, communication -related issues can
create difficulties for project managers. As construction projects are time
as well as cost sensitive, it may create further challenges for this sector as
well ”
Interviewee 14 “I can say that business continuity becomes difficult if any specific level of
engagement or communication is not maintained. Thus, remote work
cannot be practised for a long time in c onstruction sector as it may lead to
process downtime .”
Interviewee 15 “I believe that critical challenges regarding managing individual growth
perspectives create issues for maintaining project integrity in every
industry. However, in I.T., tech -support, marketing and others, the level of
challenge regarding the same is somewhat lower than industries like
manufacturing, construction and others.”
Interviewee 16 “In my opinion, remote work is deteriorating the overall integrity process
as it strives from i ndividual engagement or a ssociation level with a project
by causing process downtime and other related issues ”
Interviewee 17 “I have handled remote teams even before the pandemic set in, So I would
like to say that maintaining remote teams can be easier for some aspects of
the project such as initiation and closure.”
Interviewee 18 “I think remote teams can somewhat help in managing projects;
nevertheless, I only tend to seek assistance from them once I do not get any
options to complete the same with th e physical team as I believe
maintaining project integrity with remote teams can be difficult due to lack
of engagement, improper communication and the proximal distance.”
Interviewee 19 “During Covid -19 led lockdown, I have seen significant growth in th e
work process as remote working has taken over every project related
furtherance. I believe a remote workforce can work for all industries for all
segments of project management apart from execution. Thus, project
integrity can also be managed by remote t eams.”
Interviewee 20 “I do not think remote workforce can help maintain project integrity as
definitive precedence logic and pure estimates cannot be developed in such
a virtual environment.”
Interviewer What is the extent of contribution of the remote team towards the
maintenance of the continuity plans of the business for the project’s
Interviewee 1 “I think remote teams can help to continue a business plan by doing their
parts. However, any emergency support required for managing the
different levels of the project gets difficult for further strategic
Interviewee 2 “I believe remote teams can contribute by identifying the scope and
adhering to it while performing their tasks to ensure an integrated approach
towards the development process in the construction sector .”
Interviewee 3 “I think remote teams can significantly contribute to the business
continuity plan improvement by identifying dependencies between
differen t business areas and functions in the construction sector .”
Interviewee 4 “In my opinion, a clear plan of proceeding to maintain operations can be
contemplated as the best method to seek contribution from the remote
Interviewee 5 “Remote teams c an help identify critical functions of the project as they
can reflect on different aspects that need further revival aspect.”
Interviewee 6 “Practicing communication excellence can ensure the remote teams are
well aware of the contexts of the project and contribute to the project
Interviewee 7 “I believe remote teams can help projects by doing their designated area of
work as it helps to maintain precedence.”
Interviewee 8 “In my opinion, conveying the ultimate goal to an individual and
identifying clear roles for further adherence to it helps projects. Thus,
remote teams can contribute to the project success by proceeding towards
the ultimate goal with regular management parameter development.”
Interviewee 9 “I think by being credible as well as reliable, individuals can contribute to
the overall growth parameters to a greater extent.”
Interviewee 10 “In my opinion, project work is often fluid or free -flowing; thus, remote
teams can contribute by communicating the maximum level of flui dity
Interviewee 11 “I believe by managing all interdependencies as well as proper
communication parameters can get improved with the help of reliable
source. Thus, by fulfilling their responsibilities, remote teams can assist in
terms of strate gic furtherance.”
Interviewee 12 “I think by staying on their designated duties and highlighting any issues
they face during that process, remote teams can contribute to a project.”
Interviewee 13 “In my opinion, staying on the topic for attaining the re sult is the most
critical contribution a remote team member can make.”
Interviewee 14 “I think conveying simple ideas and working to resolve the problem
statement found during the initial planning times can be contemplated as
the most effective elements o f consideration for strategic growth.”
Interviewee 15 “I believe any team irrespective of its location can contribute to projects by
fulfilling their designated roles and maintaining effective communication.”
Interviewee 16 “Based on my experience, I can say both responsibility management and
emotional intelligence related aspects need to be maintained effectively for
better demarcation of proceeding.”
Interviewee 17 “I think that understanding individualistic roles and helping fellow
professionals can b e considered two core contributing factors by remote
Interviewee 18 “In my opinion, concrete contributions such as completing project works
and intangible contributions such as helping fellow teammates, effectively
proceeding with a project, devel oping proper growth parameter analytics
and others can be eventually done by remote teams in the construction
sector .”
Interviewee 19 “I believe the appropriate level of understanding on completing different
project levels for working effectively can be t he key contribution of any
team in construction sector ”
Interviewee 20 “Fulfilling job responsibilities assigned against budget, schedule and other
parameters as well as submitting the work before deadline with good
quality can be the main contribution o f remote teams.”
Interviewer How can the project’s integrity be maintained during the execution stage of
the project?
Interviewee 1 “I believe commitment towards effective quality elements as per
construction management process can be contemplated as the basic
elements that can help to maintain integrity.”
Interviewee 2 “Adhering to the path of righteousness as per the project management
guiding pricing and sharing useful information with the team at times can
help to manage pr oject integrity aspects.”
Interviewee 3 “I think respecting the commitments and proceeding with a responsible
working parameter can assist in terms of managing project integrity.”
Interviewee 4 “I believe maintaining transparency through a clear level o f
communication and adhering to the project’s planned attributes can help
maintain the project integrity asp ects during the execution phase as per
construction management process ”
Interviewee 5 “I think execution is the most critical stage where sticking to the plans is
important for maintaining the integrity levels. Additionally, by managing
communication and transparency, the core aspect of integrity can be
Interviewee 6 “Being honest with the employees about the comparative aspect of planned
and actual growth in the execution phase needs to be maintained for
improving the core context of int egrity in projects as per construction
management process ”
Interviewee 7 “In my opinion, helping the employees by assisting them in the underlying
proces s of projec t execution through transparent approach and proper
communication method can help maintain the integrity.”
Interviewee 8 “I think linking project goals with every step an employee is taking can
only happen in case the communication parameter is clear. Besides,
adherence to the core process of management parameter seems important
for integrity management.”
Interviewee 9 “In my opinion, focusing on the overarching goals of strategic
development and managing the essential aspects of project manag ement
can help to ma intain integrity in the process as per construction
management process ”
Interviewee 10 “I think practising an adequate level of management for considering
effective work progress paradigm can eventually help to maintain integrity.
Thus, development of a transparent communication plan for the adequate
level of progress management needs to be undertaken here for further
strategic development.”
Interviewee 11 “Plan specific execution process maintenance can be essentially done with
the help of appropriate decision making which eventually h elps maintain
project integrity as per construction man agement process ”
Interviewee 12 “Ensuring the project progress growth as per determining critical incidents
linked to the project can help managing project integrity in the execution
Interviewee 13 “Adhering to the core process of effective project management process
with clear communication can help to maintain project integrity in the
project exe cution phase according to the basic rules of construction
management programs ”
Interviewee 14 “Accordin g to my experience, transparency and integrity can be
maintained during the execution phase by developing a clear conception of
the overall development process through project charters or blueprints .”
Interviewee 15 “I believe focusing on overall project quality and improving the
communication parameter can help maintain project integrity as per
construction management process ”
Interviewee 16 “In my opinion, emphasising on setting an effective example of
communication and integrity for the team is importa nt to smoothly get
passed in the execution phase.”
Interviewee 17 “I think transparency and communication are two key elements that can
help manage project integrity during all phases of the project.”
Interviewee 18 “The execution phase, in particular, r equires a significant level of attention
from project managers in terms of integrity as manipulation of any element
in this stage may create difficulties for project completion. Thus, by
maintaining communication and transparency in this process, the speci fic
issues regarding integrity can be resolved.”
Interviewee 19 “I believe honesty towards work that strives from transparency must be
maintained during the execution phase as per construction management
process for better demarcation.”
Interviewee 20 “I think adhering to transparency and loyalty towards a project can help
maintain project integrity in all phases. Specifically, in the execution
phase, focusing on these factors can ensure the project -related attributes
are properly maintained and clear t o all team members executing the task.
Therefore, reducing issues regarding communication lags, scope creeps
and others can be done with transparency management that ultimately
helps manage project integrity.”
Table 4.4: Interview transcript
4.4 Findings
Based on the interview, three core themes have been derived based on which the steps of
CIT have been implemented here. The core aspects defined here will follow the pathway of
CIT’s steps, including establishing aims, specifying plans, collecting critica l incidents, analysing
data and determining the outcome. Moreover, the findings derived here clarifies the overall
intent of analysing data regarding remote team usage to further maintain project integrity as a
core segment of business continuity plans in project management. As for construction projects,
the underlying themes of continual business process management has been defined which can
predominantly ensure a clear conception on the discussing parameter of continuous process
development. After determi ning each factor against all the questions included in the interview, a
summary table determining the process flow of CIT has been done in this context for better
Figure 4.4: Critical incident technique
(Source: Viergever 2019 )
4.4.1 Theme 1: Assistance and constraints of remote teams in managing project integrity
ï‚· Establishing aim : The underlying aim of this theme is to find out assistance as well as
constraints of remote teams in terms of managing project integrity by synthesising the
responses from the construction project managers.
ï‚· Specifying plans : In order to attain this aim, 20 project managers from Iran who have
operational experience in the construction sector for handling different project have been
chosen. After the respondent s confirmed their willingness to participate here, a consent
form was provided to them to portray the process of strategic development. Besides that,
the underlying plan for including this specific theme in the question has been done here
for better demarc ation.
ï‚· Collecting critical incidents : The collection of critical incidents has been done through
telephonic interviews with the mentioned sample size. Afterwards, a concise idea from
the experiences shared from the individual’s end has been collected base d on the question
asked during the interview.
 Analysing data : Against the question regarding remote working’s assistance towards
project integrity management, 15 out of 20 project managers defined that remote working
tend to constraint the process of maintaining project integrity; however, maximum
individuals defined that, despite that, remote working can become an important element
for business continuity. This is because the pandemic led lockdown since 2020 has
conveyed the realisation to employees a nd employers that remote work can be helpful in
such a dire situation. On the other hand, some of the interviewees defined that remote
work can help to maintain project integrity and become an important factor in business
continuity in some sectors . Howeve r, in construction industry, critical challenges
regarding handling labour management has been identified. In addition to the either -or
option, some critical factors such as communication, engagement, transparency and
others are found, which play a crucial role in terms of synthesising the discussing
information. Therefore, even though the specific context of remote working is relatively
new, it can be considered a practical aspect for maintaining project integrity and business
ï‚· Determining outc ome : Based on the interview results, it can be defined that
communication is the most critical factor for maintaining project integrity in the longer
run in the construction sector as it has com plex nature . According to Project Management
Institute (PMI) m embers, fairness, honesty, responsibility, respect, and are the
characteristics that motivate ethical behaviour in the project management profession
according to Project Management Institute (PMI) members. Likewise, in the discussing
context, these factors are highlighted as some of the core qualities that need to be
maintained while hiring a team member for a remote team. Additionally, when it comes
to other project team members, acting with integrity means being open and honest about
a project manager’s e xpectations, goals, and thoughts about the work they accomplish in
the construction sector . In order to accelerate the project team considering the need to
succeed and deliver the project on time, on budget, and within the scope of the project, a
project m anager must have integrity. The team members will not only buy into any plan
of action and project management style with it. Instead, they will also become a solid
extension of the project manager’s views, committed to completing the task. Similarly,
for t eam members, setting a benchmark of integrity can inspire other teammates and
subordinates to proceed with integrity in the construction sector . In order to maintain the
aspect of communication for improving project integrity, some core factors need to be
maintained. For example, whenever team members are introduced, they should verify
their original business requirements and request work as part of the project role. This
allows them to contribute themselves according to their expertise in the field and
inc reases the project’s chances of success. Furthermore, completing the tasks thoroughly
seems the best way to adhere to business continuity in the construction sector . In addition
to that, being thorough in project planning activities means assessing project
requirements and any gaps in detail. It also means confirming the steps according to the
chosen project management method. This ensures a much more comprehensive project
management plan and production of supporting documents. Therefore, communication
and transparency parameters can generate a positive outcome for further strategic
4.4.2 Theme 2: Contribution of remote teams towards maintaining continuity plans of
ï‚· Establishing aim : The key aim of this question was to find out the con tribution factor for
remote working parameters towards maintaining continuity plans for the business. This is
because of understanding the level of contributing factors for further strategic
development in the construction sector . Moreover, the aim of establishing a good idea for
continuity plan management was focused on this specific theme.
ï‚· Specifying plans : 20 Iranian project managers with operational experience in project
management were selected in maximum projects. After res pondents confirm their
willingness to participate, a consent form will be provided to them to outline the strategy
development process in the construction sector . In addition, the basic plan to include this
particular topic in question has been worked out here for better distinction.
ï‚· Collecting critical incidents : The collection of critical incidents was done by telephone
interview with the mentioned sample size. Next, a brief idea of each individual’s shared
experiences at the end was collected based on the question posed in the interview.
ï‚· Analysing data : In this specific instance, data regarding the core contexts of
management as well as development can essentially provide a good idea of related data
concepts. When teams have clear roles and responsibil ities, they know what is expected
and work more effectively. Knowing their roles will also help them feel encouraged and
motivated to complete their various tasks in the construction sector . Understanding how
to develop the right roles for a team is critic al to the success of your business. In this
article, the focus has been kept on defining roles and responsibilities and determining
how best to use each employee’s skills for a team’s overall goals. Role refers to a person’s
position in a group. Responsibi lities can be contemplated as the duties and functions of
the role of their specific job description. Employees are responsible for the completion of
certain tasks in the workplace. The more clearly their supervisor outlines tasks, the more
likely employee s are to achieve team goals and succeed in their individual roles within
the company. However, for a supervisor or delegating team leader to be effective, he or
she must clearly understand his or her role in the business. It can also be helpful to
understa nd the benefits of performing roles and responsibilities for the construction
project managers . Creating the core aspect of functional roles as well as duties for
individuals has various advantages that could benefit your firm as a whole, in addition to
en hancing team efficiency. In case team leaders understand these crucial advantages, they
will be motivated to put these aspects into practice in the future in case they have not
previously. Some of the advantages of defining functional roles and tasks have been
discussed in the specific management context. A project manager can set a team up for
success by efficiently distributing critical duties and having a fixed plan. Employees with
clear responsibilities as well as deadlines consist of all of the resourc es they need to
complete their tasks and achieve maximum achievement in the construction project .
Teams tend to understand what they need to work on when they know what is expected
of them. The team’s total productivity will increase if their duties are we ll defined. In the
long run, higher productivity will lead to increased momentum and success for the team.
Setting a team up for success by efficiently distributing critical duties and having a fixed
plan is important, which can be essentially done with th e help of. Employees with clear
responsibilities and deadlines deems to have access to all of the resources they need to
complete their tasks as it helps organisations to achieve maximum level of productivity
achievement. Besides that, the interviewees dep icted that with clear roles and
responsibility conveyance, entire team benefits as they can effectively fulfil their
function. Team success is a significance approach to get people excited about future
initiatives and increase productivity. Apart from that , team confidence tend to get boosted
as a result of this specific goal achievement aspect. The entire team tend to seek benefit
when all tasks are clearly defined to the members, and they perform well in their
function. Team success is a terrific approach to get people excited about upcoming
initiatives and boost productivity of construction team members . The team’s confidence
will grow as a result of this victory. Understanding the team’s aims and objectives is an
effective method to figure out who will b e in charge of what. Employees are seen to be
more productive as well as capable of producing higher -quality material when they have
a transparent idea on what they should be working on. Most of the employees tend to
make a list of everything that has to b e completed for better demarcation. This can help
them esti mate the number of tasks need s to be delegate d. Keep track of what the team is
working on right now, as well as previous projects. In addition to that, finding out
whether previous efforts were a s uccess or not. In case it is not, finding out what could
have been done differently can be done with the help of this specific context of
construction project . Besides that, finding out whether any chores have not been finished
yet can be done. Recognizing these aspects and assigning them to the team members as
needed can be essentially done.
ï‚· Determining outcome: Understanding the core aspect of the team’s strengths as well as
their weaknesses might help a project team to assign assignments that are relev ant to their
job descriptions. Once the core context of strengths can be figured out where an
employee excels, give them jobs that play to their strengths. Project managers often
consider assigning specific duties requiring particular skills to the team me mber who can
perform it more successfully. This will help those teams to operate more efficiently and
acquire confidence in their ability to complete the task at hand. At the same time,
personnel should constantly be learning and improving their skill set on the job. Each
member of the team has a certain job to play, which is determined by their skillset and
experience. Whenever a new plan is suggested, some team members will be optimists,
fostering new ideas and optimism, while others will be more pragmati c, encouraging
defined goals and structure. The point is that each role in a team’s collaboration has its
own worth. In common instances, a team member’s general roles and responsibilities
include participating in the process actively, being a good listene r, making a mental note
of everything and tasks and assignments must be completed by the construction project
manager as well as the team . Creating a motivating work atmosphere with a culture of
open communication, setting explicit team objectives, and tas ks should be delegated, and
deadlines should be defined for clearer demarcation. Oversee the company’s day -to-day
operations and maintain a monitored team performance and metrics needs to be
considered for clearer demarcation. Furthermore, encouraging fell ow team members to
work harder along with determining the training requirements and providing coaching
can be essentially done with the help of this specific context as per the data gained from
the interview. Paying attention to comments from team members and handling any
difficulties or disagreements that arise, acknowledging and rewarding exceptional
performance, and encouraging risk -taking and originality can be contemplated as some
critical areas of contribution that can be provided from the remote work er’s end. In
addition, some core factors of consideration that contributes to the overall integrity and
continuity of a project extend to a wide array of tasks. For example, the interviewees
defined that all the responsibility aspects assigned by the team leader or manager must be
completed diligently and considering the highest standard within the given deadline.
Additionally, collaboration with team members to communicate daily, weekly, and
monthly goals can be highlighted as another core factor that must be achieved. Besides
that, participating in the open -ended meetings as well as defining the core concerns along
with improving proposals can help to maintain continuity in the overall project
management process. In addition, answering or increasing client or other stakeholder
concerns and questions to clarify doubts has been found as another core factor that needs
to be synthesised for better distinction. Apart from that, a team member’s responsibilities
extend to performing various administrative duties i f needed for a project’s completion,
as defined by multiple interviewees. Furthermore, while representing the organisation,
maintaining a high level of professionalism is essential as per the experiences defined in
the interview. In addition, attending wor kshops and training sessions to improve their
skills as well as prioritizing necessary chores to effectively manage their time to clearly
incorporate the idea of strategic parity management must be performed by the remote
workforce to maintain integrity an d continuity in construction projects . Finally, as
needed, assisting the manager or team leader as per the job roles described to them during
hire must be prioritised by the remote workforce to ensure an adequate level of strategic
growth in this context.
4.4.3 Theme 3: Project integrity maintenance during the execution phase
ï‚· Establishing aim : The underlying aim of this theme was to identify the project integrity
maintenance process during the execution phase of a project by analysing the experiential
idea from the chosen sample size.
ï‚· Specifying plans : As similar to the previous works, this p articular theme also followed
the process of telephonic interview based response analysis from the chosen sample size.
After the consent about participation was taken, conveying the importance of this
question for creating a proper case study was done. Fin ally, the responses from all the
managers are synthesised for clearer demarcation.
ï‚· Collecting critical incidents : By asking opinions on the discussing domain through an
elaborative question, a critical incident that gets reflected from a project manager’s end
has been done in this specific process for construction project managers . In addition to
that, collecting the core elements of finding different incidents that happened to the
project managers during the execution phase has been done in this process f or a clearer
process of growth.
ï‚· Analysing data : As per the details found from the interview about maintaining project
integrity during the execution phase, it has been found that many organizational members
decry their leaders’ lag in terms of authenticit y and integrity. In case that feeling pervades
amongst the team, especially the remote workforce, trust cannot grow, and progress
toward establishing a project -based organisation is slowed significantly. Besides that, the
analysis clearly defined that inte grity indicates that they follow through on what they
claim they will do and for the reasons they mentioned. In order to encourage the
innovation that leads to project success, some project managers employ the method of
employee empowerment for increasing transparency for effective growth of different
construction projects . Furthermore, following up by hiring team members on a one -year
contract with annual performance evaluations can be tested for continuity management
through effective performance appraisa l. Based on this context, salaries are determined
by performance rather than seniority. In case an organisation focuses on this factor, the
management’s actions and remarks need to be constant and should reflect a belief in
assisting people in reaching the ir full potential for achieving a continuous development
ï‚· Determining outcome: As identified from the literature review, authenticity and
integrity connects the intellect and emotions by linking intentions, words, and deeds.
They assist leaders in establishing trust with their following. It is often the difference
between success and failure when these ideals are demonstrated in action in the
construction sector . Furthermore, people are rarely motivated to follow the benchmarking
parts that must be done for consistency and integrity. Additionally, the primary
qualitative analysis demonstrated that whenever team members notice a disparity
between what leaders say and what they imply is important through their conduct, it is
indeed evident that somethi ng is incorrect. Activity levels plummet, and productive work
slows or stops entirely in construction industry . One project team, for instance, set out to
design a strategy for the coming year with zeal. It came to a halt, however, when the
project manager pushed through a specific plan in order to fulfil a request from a higher –
up. The team members tend to went through the processes of crafting a strategy but spent
little heartfelt energy in the project, feeling disrespected by their hierarchy and estrange d
from their initial goal. Therefore, critical challenges regarding a disparity may appear and
create significant difficulties for growth.
The CIT method deployed here depicted several ‘incidents’ regarding different aspects of
project integrity and busin ess continuity management based on the ideas of multiple project
managers. Additionally, it is the event that the participant has reported based on their inference
from experience. In order for an occurrence to be considered critical, the participant must believe
that the event caused the outcome ( Pandey and Pandey 2021; Nayak and Singh 2021; Arifin
2018 ). Since recollection can take time in a critical incident interview, the participant is given
time to think about each episode before recounting it. Howeve r, due to lack of time in this
context as, the asked time from the individuals created difficulty in recording each answer, for
which mostly a basic idea on the incidental response has been found. Only some of the project
managers could recall incidents fr om their experience within the time allocated based on which
the inference mentioned above has been made. In the above themes, a clear orientation of CIT
provided an idea on the causal relationship between different elements of the remote workforce
on proj ect success, business continuity as well as integrity (Refer to Appendix).
4.5 Discussion
Summary of findings
Comparing assistance and constraints of remote teams in managing project integrity
Virtual teams or geographically dispersed collaborations from remote places that
communicate and collaborate through technology have a number of potential productivity
benefits, as discussed in the literature review. Cooperation in the remote teams can be
contemplated as synchronous and asynchronous interactions that fosters tasks to achieve
common goals, similar to the process of collaboration in the co -located teams. Organizations can
employ virtual teams for enlisting important professionals regardless o f their physical location,
as defined in the interview. Furthermore, the incidental analysis depicted that managing remote
teams presents its own set of issues, which necessitates its own set of solutions for construction
sector . Managers may be concerned that staff will not work as hard or as efficiently as they
should, even if research indicates otherwise. On the other hand, the virtual team members may
find it difficult to communicate with the management and receive help from them when required.
This can make remote workers feel like their managers are out of touch with their requirements
and thus unsupportive of their efforts to complete their tasks. Therefore, maintaining a consistent
communication approach as highlighted by all the managers in the inte rview is important for
further strategic development.
Analysing contribution of remote teams towards maintaining continuity plans of business
Increased productivity and cost savings can be highlighted as the two most critical factors
that tend to create a dvantages for strategic development. In addition, no unnecessary meetings
that ultimately create productivity issues can be reduced with remote teams. Thus, contribution
towards productivity that helps to maintain business continuity plan can be ensured wi th remote
teams. Furthermore, developing a healthy work -life balance for employees to increase retention
rate seems important for the overall growth process. In addition to that, employee retention rates
have improved in organisations as work from the home situation has helped to reduce stress.
Besides that, a remote workforce can contribute to production as it consists of a larger talent pool
that allows an organisation to hire more people faster, which accelerates the process of business
continuity as add itional work of training new hires gets reduced in the construction sector .
Overall, the analysis defined that virtual teams can be contemplated as an emerging new -age
trend that is gaining traction in various industries. Therefore, similar to any other ne w trend, they
must be subjected to rigorous research in order to assess their benefits and drawbacks before
being accepted by experts. The benefits and drawbacks of virtual teams can be considered on
three levels: individual, organisational, and social. Ho wever, the lack of personal interaction tend
to have a negative impact on members of remote workforce. Furthermore, in a virtual setting, the
majority of communication is mostly task -oriented which may create issues regarding feelings of
non -belongingness amongst the team members. Furthermore, the CIT -based analysis defined that
performing the duties by fulfilling the assigned roles and responsibilities is the most critical
factor or contributing elements that can be made by remote teams.
Importance and c urrent level of project integrity maintenance during the execution phase
During the execution phase, the project manager begins to monitor the implementation’s
progress. Additionally, the project manager sets an emergency escalation method as well as a
cha nge control process in the event that the project plan and system design go difficult and
organises subcontractors. The PM must maintain continual communication with all project staff
and/or their managers in order to complete these tasks as defined in the CIT. Besides that, the
secondary analysis is done in the literature review clearly demonstrated that the information
gathered is crucial for evaluating progress against the plan’s baseline and preparing for status
meetings and reports. It is normally the PM’s role to interact with billing on the project’s
particular accounts receivables and payables in a construction project . Apart from that, the
underlying process of developing baselines as well as monitoring the changes is known as a
crucial segment of i ntegrity management. It is all about identifying and maintaining a desirable
condition. At the end of the day, that is what project managers intend to do for managing overall
process integrity. Furthermore, the underlying importance of integrity extends to the different
sectors as well as a local business community; operating a business with integrity will earn an
organisation with a great reputation. This is especially important if a small business relies on
long -term or repeat customers or if an organisat ion sell products or services to other businesses.
4.6 Chapter summary
The key intent of this chapter was to collect data based on primary qualitative findings
from 20 Iranian project managers and synthesise those data to determine whether or not remote
teams can be used for maintaining project integrity as a part of a busine ss continuity plan for
construction as well as other project management. In order to do the same, telephonic interview
conduction was focused and based on the interview findings, CIT has been applied, which
further helped to understand the core elements th at need to be focused here for clearer
demarcation of growth. After the main area of synthesis, a discussion that aligns primary
findings with the previously found secondary data is done in this chapter for improving the
notion of strategic development. Ov erall, the study has helped to understand the perception of
project managers regarding the effectiveness of the remote workforce in project integrity as well
as business continuity management in this chapter. Hence, it can be deduced that the chapter
helpe d to contribute new knowledge in the discussing domain with primary research.
Relating findings with previous research
The analysis defined that while most remote workers claim that working from home
increases their productivity, other people were simply not built for it. Working without direct or
in-person supervision may be problematic for such individuals. Likewise, prev ious findings by
Erdogan, Å aparauskas and Turskis (2017) defined that working without supervision may create
issues in terms of organisational proceedings as inexperienced employees may face difficulties
related to process. They may require more assistance or novel tracking methods to track time and
progress to stay on track. Low productivity may be perceived which may not be necessarily true
in various instances mostly in the construction sector. Those in the office, for example, may
believe that their rem ote colleagues aren’t working as hard because they can’t see them in hybrid
scenarios, such as when some workers are in the office, and some are at home. Overall, the
challenge factors are most critical and create issues in terms of strategic development o f integrity
and continuity as individual perception, tone, and other factors differ in in -person and virtual
meetings. However, these challenges can be mitigated as leading organisations that survived
during Covid -19 led mandatory shutdowns with a remote w orkforce. As per the optimist project
managers who believed remote workforce could work with proper communication paradigm,
focus on predictability and organisation are essential as it helps to improve the core process of
workplace productivity in the cons truction sector. Furthermore, depicting the defined roles and
duties, setting clear timetables, and keeping everyone informed about who is doing what to
create that framework can be considered some key elements that need to be emphasised for
better distinc tion.
Theoretical implication
Projects that interact with confidential or sensitive client information or that are
responsible for managing their customers’ financial or personal issues need to convey a strong
sense of integrity amongst team members as w ell as the PM in the construction sector. Moreover,
the inference from the CIT depicts that employees that have high standards of integrity are
generally drawn to firms that have a high level of honesty. Employees that share the same
business principles as of a form tend to have values that are more likely to be good ambassadors
for organisational integrity management. This will further aid in attracting and retaining top
employees in your field for your small business. Employees who believe their organisat ion
would not defraud or mislead clients are more likely to believe they will be treated fairly by
management as defined in the CIT. Overall, employee turnover can be minimised, and a highly
qualified staff can emerge as a result.
Practical implication
As of the contemporary age, where work is a major social force for most of the
individuals because many of the co -workers are also close acquaintances, remote work can lead
to a negative sense of social isolation. This particular aspect in turn tend to cre ate a negative
impact on productivity and causes stress as well as create difficulties for project managers. Thus,
this study provides a practical idea on both positive and negative impact of remote working in
construction sector that may be implied to oth er industries as well. Overall practical implication
of the findings would include providing a transparent overview on the process of remote
Boundary condition
Even though the findings are related to construction sector it can imply on other
industries as emote work or hybrid work culture has increased significantlu sicne the initiation of
the pandemic. Thus, the findings imply to other industries like IT, manufacturing, automobile
and others’ administrative or operational processes in current t imes.
Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1 Conclusion
In this research, investigation on the effectiveness of the virtual teams in terms of
managing the aspect of project integrity as a part of their B usiness Continuity Plan (BCP) is done
by analysing primary and secondary data. The first chapter of the study clearly introduced the
topic and provided a brief idea on the problem of remote working and its impact on project
integrity. In order to identify the critical areas, focus on developing a transparent idea on the core
attributes of existing studies regarding the chosen topic area is done. Mostly, though
investigative idea on different components of remote teamwork in the field of project
management has been defined concisely, be sides that, research questions created here for
strategically progressing towards understanding research methods and critical factors leading the
remote -team handled projects towards success is duly answered by drawing a conclusion from
the existing resear ches done on similar topics.
The third chapter demonstrated an idea on the core methodological element that has
framed the entire process of data collection and analysis through CIT . Furthermore, in the data
analysis chapter, primary qualitative data anal ysis with a different inferential idea on the context
by seeking responses from a group of project managers who have worked in the field of
construction from Iran working with remote teams was provided. The primary qualitative
analysis and the literature r eview created here helped this study cover a wide range of critical
elements that need to be maintained throughout a project. Overall, it has been found that
communication, transparency and commitment regarding further process orientation
management have b een derived from this study. Hence, the key aim of analysing whether or not
using remote teams for maintaining project integrity in the construction sector as a part of
business continuity has been duly met throughout the project.
5.2 Linking with objecti ves
5.2.1: Linking with objective 1
To assist in understanding the role played by the remote teams in the maintenance of
project integrity as an integral part of the plans of business continuity
The primary objective of this research was to assist in und erstanding the role played by
remote workplaces as it can help to understand the essentiality of this context in managing the
project integrity paradigm. As found from the initial areas, project integrity is an integral aspect
of ensuring business continui ty. Therefore, in the literature review, a clear description of the key
reason behind project integrity has been explained for a clearer demarcation of growth.
Additionally, in the data analysis chapter, a different theme that defines remote teams’
effecti veness in managing a project’s integrity has been designed. Based on the ideas gained
from 20 Iranian construction project managers, a consolidated idea on the discussion parameters
was developed in the analysis. Furthermore, in the discussion segment, a s imilar element has
been supported with the help of secondary data.
5.2.2 Linking with objective 2
To collect a range of responses to the most essential factors contributing towards
enhancement, eroding and maintaining workplace involvement
The second objective in this specific context was to collect and synthesise a range of responses
for identifying some crucial factors that contribute towards enhancement, eroding as well as
maintaining workplace involvement. In order to attain this objecti ve, the data analysis segment
of this study has been developed. In this chapter, responses from various construction project
managers with experience in working with remote teams have been consolidated regarding
different areas associated with the aforemen tioned topic. Through analysing those responses in
the fourth chapter with the primary qualitative data analysis process, this objective has been
essentially met. In order to further validate the data, the study has derived secondary information
about the mentioned topic, which eventually helped attain the aim. Thus, this objective has been
duly met.
5.2.3: Linking with objective 3
To involve the use of CIT to assist in creating the taxonomy of responses to those incidents
that are crucial for the maintena nce, strengthening, and erosion of the engagement
The final objective of this study was to involve the use of CIT to assist in creating the taxonomy
of responses to those incidents that are crucial for the maintenance, strengthening, and erosion of
the eng agement. As CIT is a proven method of consideration for concisely analysing the
response taxonomy, this particular method has been chosen here. In the methodology chapter, a
clear orientation on carrying out CIT for the chosen domain has been discussed, wh ich has been
followed in the fourth chapter whether the method has been implied to analyse the responses
gained from the interview of construction project managers . Through the depiction of a clear
strategic orientation process, a description of CIT has be en provided for maintaining and
strengthening the engagement erosion found amongst remote workplaces in current times. Thus,
the overarching objective has been duly met.
Relating back to literature review
In the literature review, a clear description of the key reason behind project integrity has
been explained for a clearer demarcation of growth. Besides that, the chapter hel ped to identify
empirical findings that further assisted in terms of deriving whether or not remote wo rking can
work on longer term s. In essence, this chapter helpe d to attain the aim and objectives of the study
5.3 Limitations of the research
Due to limited time allocated for each interview, finding in -depth idea on the domain was
difficult. Besides that, the interview focused on finding specific data elements; however, due to
organisational confidentiality, the answer seemed vague. Nevertheles s, in the findings section, an
in-depth idea on the discussing contexts has been demonstrated to address specific idea from the
core area. However, a more discrete interview session can be conducted based on the
fundamental findings in future.
5.4 Recomme ndation
ï‚· Identifying and providing correct tools for communication : In order to ensure the
integrity and business continuity with remote teams, organisations need to ascertain that
each employee has access to the systems, training, and information necessary to complete
their tasks. In current times, multiple tools like Zoom, Slack, and G -Suite are being used
to make collaboration and engagement easier. Every component of an organisation can be
dispersed with the contemporary cloud -based technology, from I.T. solutions that allows
tech team to access distant computers to A.P. systems like Stampli that allow users to
process and approve invoices remotely. Additionally, based on literature review analysis,
it can be defined that employees want technology that al lows them to efficiently
collaborate with co -workers, suppliers, and consumers. Thus, providing proper
collaboration tools for improving the core aspects of communication can be
recommended as the most crucial element for further growth.
ï‚· Engaging remote t eams in team bonding activities : Using the different technologies
accessible online, it is critical to establish a distant culture and cohesiveness as
construction industry is susceptible to significant changes . A remote team can still get
together digital ly for happy hour, games, or other team -building events, similar to an in –
office team. Apart from that, being sympathetic can be considered as the first and
foremost element to improve team bonding. Never lose sight of the fact that a company
needs to valu e their employees as people first by investing in their well -being.
Afterwards, there must be complete transparency about expectations, including goals,
timelines, and how the employees may contribute to adopting and developing the
company’s current cultur e for engaging remote teams effectively.
ï‚· Involving the team to train new hires : “Business as normal” has been disrupted by the
pandemic. In addition, perfecting the hiring process. By selecting applicants through a
virtual review panel comprising all depa rtment heads and certain personnel to guarantee
that everyone can participate and that everything runs smoothly. Businesses can also use
Zoom calls to have additional staff present exciting, bi -weekly sessions for engaging
colleagues. Despite the many adva ntages of remote work, the most common complaint
from employees was loneliness. Thus, fostering team relationships through social hours,
video chats, and virtual team -building events can be included to keep the remote staff
motivated. Furthermore, by desig nating mentors to new hires, new employees will have
someone to turn to with questions and to help them get oriented during their first year.
Therefore, planning in -person team or corporate retreats and outings, if possible, to
develop such bonds are sugge sted for team engagement.
ï‚· Conveying the underlying importance of project integrity parameter : Increased
knowledge sharing and greater innovation can happen in case an enterprises’ human
capital reflect on their understanding to the fellow team members and subordinates.
Besides that, integrity in project management pays off in the long run. In order to
summarise the core parameter of project integrity -related aspects, improving the overall
process development attributes needs to be undertaken for clearer de marcation.
Irrespective of the level of difficulties, it may seem at the time to make the right option
for the construction sector . Every time a project manager or an employee act ethically,
they strengthen the resolve to act in the same manner in the futu re or benchmark that
behaviour for further strategic growth.
ï‚· Creating a culture of direct, open virtual communications : The most common issue
maximum project managers have experienced is regarding managing people remotely or
otherwise, is associated with the delusional perception that leads to real or perceived
disconnect around work priorities and expectations in the construction industry . Most
problems could have been averted if someone had simply sent an email or message in
Slack. In case employees real ise that with a transparent organisational culture, they can
work from anywhere, communicate quickly, and submit assignments on time with the
help of virtual communication. Besides that, contacting colleagues effortlessly can be
highlighted as another adva ntage that can be gained with this aspect as employees can
quickly and easily communicate with one another. Besides that, there is no need to switch
from one desk to the next or get distracted, which also saves time.
5.4 Future scope of the research
This paper’s topic, “using remote teams to maintain project integrity as part of business
continuity plans in managing projects,” is extremely crucial as the new normal emerges in the
post -pandemic situation. This is because employers have identified the advant ages of working
with remote workforces in cost -effectiveness. Any research into this new area of consideration
will have an impact because the dangers are always causing concerns, and any directions to fix
these situations can assist the sector in overcomi ng these issues. After the research is completed,
the key findings will be succinctly briefed in a report format and published that can be proven
helpful to future researchers pursuing research on construction management or in similar
domain. This is because the findings will further allow them to improve the quality of their
research by making it easier to get more current da ta and information in a cohesive manner.
Erdogan, S.A., Å aparauskas, J. and Turskis, Z., 2017. Decision making in construction
management: AHP and expert choice approach. Procedia engineering , 172 , pp.270 -276.

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