Legal Social and Ethical Issues MGMT 6054

Legal Social and Ethical Issues MGMT 6054

Running head: PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Project Development and Management
Name of the Student:
Name of the University …

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Running head: PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Project Development and Management
Name of the Student:
Name of the University:
Author ’s Note:
pg. 1
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Executive summary
Based on the PRINCE2 project management technique, the report displays a Project Initiation
Document (PID) that provided a succinct understanding on numerous parts of project management,
including background establishment, problem statement, aim, objective, and other associated
elements. This section prepares the ground for the next segment, which took the shape of agile project
management for the development of a mobile app lication called Joborzo for volunteer activities.
Based on secondary results from current relevant sources, the third section gave a compar ative
examination of PRINCE2 and agile project management methods. In addition, key quantitative
findings have been incorporated to further justify those findings. Overall, the research accomplished
its goals and provided insight into the overall process o f application development approach.
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Table of Contents
1.0. Introduction ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………. 6
1.1. Purpose ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 6
2.0. Overview ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 6
2.1. Background ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 6
2.2. Problem Statement ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 6
2.3. A ims ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. 7
2.4. Objectives ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 7
2.5. Sustainable Benefits ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 7
2.5.1. To Society ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 7
2.5.2. To End Users ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 7
2.6. Assumptions and Constraints ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 8
2.7. Key Performance Indicators ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………… 9
2.8. Measures for the Project Success ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 9
2.9. Legal, Social and Ethical Issues ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 9
2.9.1. Legal Issues ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………….. 9
2.9.2. Social Issues ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 10
2.9.3. Ethical Issues ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 10
3.0. Use r Requirement and Project Scope ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 10
3.1. Introduction ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 10
3.2. Scope ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 11
3.3. Out of Scope ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 11
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3.4. Requi rements ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 11
3.5. Target User Groups ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 12
3.6. Process of Establishing User Requirements ………………………….. ………………………….. . 12
3.7. Stakeholder Analysis ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 12
3.7.1. Stakeholder Analysis Table ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 12
3.8. Capability Analysis ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 14
3.8.1. Histogram ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 14
3.8.2. X -R Control Chart ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 14
3.9. Feasibility Study ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 15
3.9.1. Financial Feasibility ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 15
3.9.2. Organizational Feasibility ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 15
3.9.3. Technical Feasibility ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………… 16
3.9.4. Legal Feasibility ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ….. 16
3.9.5. Schedule Feasibility ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 16
4.0. Work Breakdown structure ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 17
5.0. Product Breakdown Structure ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………… 18
5.1. User -Product Interaction Diagram ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 18
5.2. Product Description ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …… 19
6.0 Project Activities Plan ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 20
6.1. Product Flow Diagram ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 20
6.2. Gantt Chart Using Microsoft Project ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 21
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6.3. Network Diagram ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 22
6.3.1. Critical Path Analysis ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 22
7.0. Cost Analysis ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 22
7.1. High -Level Project Cost Analysis ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 22
7.2. Cost Analysis of Project Team ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 23
8.0. Risk Analysis and Contingency Plan ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 24
8.1. Risk Management Process ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 24
8.1.1. Qualitative Risk Analysis ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 24
8.1.2. Quantitative Risk Analysis ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 25
8.2. Business Risks ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………….. 25
8.3. Project Risks ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 25
8.3.1. Quantitative Risk Analysis ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 25
8.4. Risk Handling ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 26
9.0. Requirement List ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 28
9.1. MoSCw Analysis ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 28
9.2. Pri oritized Requirement List ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………. 28
10.0 Use Case Diagram ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 30
11.0. User Stories ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 33
12.0. Paper Prototypes ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 34
13.0. Development of Customer View Page ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 37
13.1. Iterative Development ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 38
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13.2. Sprint Plan ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 38
13.3. Feedback ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 39
13.4. Final Pr ototype ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 41
14.0 Class Diagram ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 46
15.0 Research Paper ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 47
15.1. Introduction ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 47
15.2. Methodology ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 47
15.3. Definition ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 47
15.3.1. Prince 2 ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 47
15.3.2. Agile ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 48
15.4. Comparis on ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 48
15.5. Survey Data Collection ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 50
15.6. Conclusion ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 52
16.0. References ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 53
17.0. Appendices ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 59
17.1. Appendix A – Slide Deck ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………… 59
17.2. Appendix B – Survey for Research Data Collection ………………………….. ……………… 59
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1.0. Introduction
1.1. Purpose
The purpose of this study is to discuss an app “Joborzo” app for the students in the
United Kingdom using which the students will be able to search for jobs and can apply for
jobs in United Kingdom.
2.0. Overview
2.1. Background
Information technology has helped human being in developing a rapid and
sophisticated worl d. In this sophisticated world, people need job so that they can earn and ca n
live their lives without any problem (Lee et al. 2018 ). Nowadays, this can be seen that most
of the students are not getting proper and suitable jobs as per their qualifications among
which some remain jobless and some do some works, which are not even o f their domain and
that is very demotivating and stressful for the students. Ther efore, students need an app,
which will help them to find out jobs as per their preferences and choices in the UK (Kim and
Kim 2018 ). Employment app will be one significant and effective app as job portal, which
the students of the United Kingdom can avail for searching for jobs. With this app, the
students can search for jobs when they are in college and after completing their college a s
well.
2.2. Problem Statement
Majority of the students after finishing their college do not get jobs based on their
basic principles. Multiple loopholes are there in the education system and employment
system , which lead to the insurmountable experience of this real world. Finding a job has
become very stressful for the students in the UK. This also impacts student’s life that
sometimes leads to depression. However, with the Employment app , students will be able to
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look for multiple jobs according to the domain. This app will work only for the student of
UK.
2.3. Aims
The aim of this study is to develop Employment app for the students of the UK
through which students will be able to find jobs in the UK.
2.4. Objectives
The objectives of this project are:
ï‚· To provide the students of UK a platform for their employment
ï‚· To leverage the students of UK to use the app for searching for jobs
ï‚· To reach more graduate students to promote the app and their services
2.5. Sustainable Benefits
2.5.1. To Society
The sustainability of the Employment app will help the society to create the equitable
access to thousands of jobs . This app will also help in building connection in the industry as
well as in staying in touch with the other people in the United Kingdom (Duggan et al. 2020 ).
This will be an invaluable tool for recruitment and job searches and the Employment app will
also be one of the greatest ways for staying up to date with the news and trends of various
industries, increase the visibility of the companie s, and will also enhance the professional
reputation.
2.5.2. To End Users
Employment app will be a cost -effective networking path for the students or the end
users using which the end users will be able t o search for jobs and to connect with the HR
and th e companies that will help them to get jobs (Jing and Yong 2016 ). The students in the
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
UK will be able to tap into the powerful job board or job portal and this app will also allow
the students to connect and communicate with various companies through email and chat
option (Brancatelli, Marguerie and Brodmann 2020 ).
2.6. Assumptions and Constraints
According to Prince 2 project management methodology, several assumptions are
there related to Employment App. Followings are the assumptions of this project:
ï‚· To create polls to be engaged with the HR and companies
ï‚· To provide the easy and simple interface to the graduates or students
ï‚· To encourage the students to search and apply for jobs
ï‚· To enable the UK -based students to connect with the companies and build
connec tions
ï‚· To provide thousands of job options in the United Kingdom
While discussing the constraints of this Employment app development project this can
be said that time, budget and scope will be the three key constraints of this project.
ï‚· The project will be completed with the estimated timeframe that is 3 months.
According to the estimated time of the project, resources will be allocated based on
the complexity of the activities.
ï‚· The app development project will be completed within the est imated budget that is
£5,000.
ï‚· To discuss the scope of app, this can be said hat this will place new strains on the
project for remaining competitive in the UK market.
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2.7. Key Performance Indicators
The success of the project will be measured though some KPIs such as active users of
the app and how many students have downloaded and installed the app, logging session time
that must consider in correlation with the active users, visiting frequency (Schumacher and
Sihn 2020 ). In this case, the pr oject success will be measured how much time an individual
user is visiting the app (Jetter, Eimecke and Rese 2018 ).
2.8. Measures for the Project Success
The success of the Employment app will be measured following some steps such as:
ï‚· Gathering feedback from some UK -based graduate students
ï‚· Reviewing the specifications of the project
ï‚· Ensuring the compliance of the project budget
ï‚· Meeting the requirement of the project schedule
ï‚· Determining the quality measurements of the Employment app
2.9. Legal, Social and Ethical Issues
2.9.1. Legal Issues
Protecting the intellectual property of the Employment app will be on the biggest
legal concerns in this project (James et al. 2016 ). In this project, this must be ensured that the
rights of the intellectual proper ty of the company only. There should be copyright system that
will protect the source code, content, and design of the app (Liu and Shestak 2021 ). Privacy
issue will be another legal issue. Therefore, the personal information of the students and the
company should be kept secure and protected (Mamonov and Benbunan -Fich 2018 ). The app
should be transparent enough to ensure the trust among the app and the users (Hof and Carle
2017 ). When the app will be prepared for being released on Google Play market and App
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Store, the app should be suitable with the terms and conditions with the platform (Yang et al.
2022 ).
2.9.2. Social Issues
The cost of the app will be a social concern if the pricing the services on the
Employment app is not affordable (Storey et al. 2016 ). Lack of information on the app can be
also concerning thing as with less information students or users will not be able to understand
about the app and the services, which may lead to less traffic on the platform (Iden and
Bygstad 2018 ).
2.9.3. Ethical Issues
Weak security and protection of PII can raise the ethical issue in this project.
Application security should be significant in this project that will play the large role in the
offline and online environment (Schreiber and Zylka 2020 ). Malicious users or hackers can
cause damage to the data of the UK based graduates and the university. Therefore, for
addressing this ethical issue, the project team members should be trained properly and should
follow the updated security standards of ap p development.
3.0. User Requirement and Project Scope
3.1. Introduction
This section will discuss about the scope of the project and the user requirement of the
Employment app. According to Prince 2 methodology, d iscussing the user requirement in this
pro ject development will be very important to ensure that the scope of the project is aligning
with the requirement of the project (Sobieraj, Metelski and Nowak 2021 ). This section will
provide the overview of the system and the facility of the Employment sys tem that will be
delivered for the UK -based graduates.
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3.2. Scope
The Employment app will offer a platform for the graduates of the United Kingdom .
The students who are pursuing their graduation or have completed college will be able to
avail the services (Yunchang and Yongchao 2017 ). Various job details will be posted on the
app and the graduates will search for and apply for the jobs. The project will be completed
within the estimated schedule and budget for making the project successful (Ben -Zeev et al.
2019 ). This app will provide opportunities to the UK based graduates to get jobs within
United Kingdom in their preferred domain.
3.3. Out of Scope
The list of the UK -based registered students will not be provided to the companies
until and unless any c ompany request for the student list.
3.4. Requirements
Functional requirements:
ï‚· Defin ing the functionality of the Employment app
ï‚· Use of the app will be defined by the graduates or the end users.
ï‚· Checking the market price
ï‚· Giving information about tracking their application process
Non -Functional requirements:
ï‚· Defining how the Employment app will work.
ï‚· Non -functional requirements will depend on the software architects,
developers and other technical people
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ï‚· Using the safety requirements related to the priva te data processing, external
attack, access control and so on
3.5. Target User Groups
The target user group of this project is the UK -based graduates.
3.6. Process of Establishing User Requirements
For establishing the user requirement s, following steps s hould be followed:
ï‚· Using the SMART targets
ï‚· Avoiding the ambiguity
ï‚· Selecting one requirement at a time
ï‚· Prioritizing the selected requirement
3.7. Stakeholder Analysis
3.7.1. Stakeholder Analysis Table
Stakeholder Interest Analysis
Issue Employment app development project in UK
Stakeholders Interest Power Possible actions for
addressing the
interest of the
stakeholders
Project Manager High High Manage closely
Project Sponsor High High Keep Satisfied
Financial Manager High High Manage Closely
Project Planner High Low Monitor effort
HR Manager Low Low Monitor effort
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Database
Administrator
Low High Keep Satisfied
Developer High High Manage closely
Security consultant Low Low Monitor effort
Suppliers High Low Keep informed
Quality Analyst Low Low Monitor effort
Table 1: Stakeholder analysis table
Fig ure 1: Stakeholder Matrix
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3.8. Capability Analysis
3.8.1. Histogram
Figure 2: Histogram
(Source: Microsoft excel)
Difference in the histogram denotes that the capabilities of the application may lag.
Hence, further testing is required.
3.8.2. X-R Control Chart
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
X-bar chart
Average X-Double bar UCL (+36) LCL (-36)
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Figure 3: X -R control chart
(Source: Microsoft excel)
The X -bar chart defines parallel proceedings which indicates that any specific issues
related to usability or navigation parameters are not found in the application during the pilot
test conducted with 7 participants. However, a slight range increment in t he R -chart over the
UCL denotes that combining these two parameters may turn into critical challenges.
3.9. Feasibility Study
3.9.1. Financial Feasibility
The Employment app will be feasible financially. This estimation that has been made
at the planning stage is that the app after launching in the market will gain profit and their
spending amount will be returned (Oppio and Torrieri 2016 ).
3.9.2. Organizational Feasibility
The project organization has sufficient management expertise, resources and
organi zational competence that can be used in the project efficiently.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
R-Chart
Range R-bar UCL LCL
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
3.9.3. Technical Feasibility
The Employment app will be technically viable to the project team and much
technical resources will be required in this project (Shylesh 2017) . This is also very essential
to plan as well as prepare for the operation of the project.
3.9.4. Legal Feasibility
The Employment app will investigate whether any factor of the app development
project conflict with the legal requirements are there not that may include socia l media laws,
data protection law and zoning law (Taylor, Floridi and Van der Sloot 2016 ).
3.9.5. Schedule Feasibility
The estimated time for this app development project is 3 months that the project
organization has planned and the project will be completed within the estimated time.
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4.0. Work Breakdown structure
Figure 4: WBS
(Source: Created by the author)
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
5.0. Product Breakdown Structure
5.1. User -Product Interaction Diagram
Figure 5: User -Product Interaction Diagram
(Source: Created by the author)
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
5.2. Product Description
Figure 6: Product breakdown structure
(Source: Created by the author)
Educational
application
development
Facility
Administrator
can find
students
Students can
check out
courses
Equipment
Student and
faculty database
Server to store
the database
Application
Adminiistrator
login
Student login
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6.0 Project Acti vities Plan
6.1. Product Flow Diagram
Figure 7: Product flow diagram
(Source: Created by the author)
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6.2. Gantt Chart Using Microsoft Project
Figure 8: Gantt chart
(Source: Microsoft Project)
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
6.3. Network Diagram
Figure 9: Network diagram
(Source: Microsoft Project)
6.3.1. Critical Path Analysis
In this project schedule, all the tasks are critical as one task of this project is
dependent on the previous task.
7.0. Cost Analysis
7.1. High -Level Project Cost Analysis
Figure 10: Cost benefit analysis Developing Graduate Employment Opportunities App
Starting phase
Organizing and preparing phase
Carrying out phase
Finishing phase
Determining the
requirement of the
project
Undertaking cost
benefit analysis
Preparing charter for
the project
M1: Getting approval
for the charter
Preparing the project
plan Preparing schedule Preparing procurement
plan
Preparing risk and
communication plan
Recruiting team
members
M2: Completion of
recruitment
Preparing the design
for the interface
Writing codes for the
project
Code validation for the
project
Developing database
for the organization
Developing
functionalities of
registration and login
Developing search
functionality
Developing record
functionality
Admin help
functionality
Preparing the
functionality of
reporting
Online help and chat
functionality
Integrating the system
within network Testing the system M3: Completion of
testing
Reviewing the project Sign off Preparing documents Releasing the
resources M4: Project closure Starting up a project 300.00 £
Directing a project 100.00 £
Initiating a project 500.00 £
Controlling a stage 4,000.00 £
Managing product delivery 500.00 £
Managing stage boundaries 500.00 £
Closure 250.00 £
Total Cost for the project 6,150.00 £
year 0
Net economic benefit – £ Year of Project
Discount Rate 8% 1.00 £ year1 year2 year3 year4 year5 year6
PV Of Benefits – £ 2,500.00 £ 3,000.00 £ 5,000.00 £ 7,500.00 £ 10,000.00 £
0.93 £ 0.86 £ 0.79 £ 0.74 £ 0.68 £
2,314.81 £ 2,572.02 £ 3,969.16 £ 5,512.72 £ 6,805.83 £
– £ – £ 2,314.81 £ 4,886.83 £ 8,855.99 £ 14,368.72 £ 21,174.55 £ 51,600.90 £
One Time Costs 900.00 £
Recurring Costs – £ 100.00 £ 100.00 £ 100.00 £ 100.00 £ 100.00 £
Discount Rate 8% 1.00 £ 0.93 £ 0.86 £ 0.79 £ 0.74 £ 0.68 £
PV Of Recurring Costs – £ 92.59 £ 85.73 £ 79.38 £ 73.50 £ 68.06 £
NPV Of All Costs 900.00 £ 992.59 £ 1,078.33 £ 1,157.71 £ 1,231.21 £ 1,299.27 £ 5,759.11 £
Overall NPV 45,841.79 £
Overall ROI = (Overall NPV / NPV Of All Costs 7.96 £
Break-Even Analysis
Yearly NPV Cash Flow – £ 2,222.22 £ 2,486.28 £ 3,889.78 £ 5,439.22 £ 6,737.77 £
Overall NPV Cash Flow 900.00 £ 1,322.22 £ 3,808.50 £ 7,698.28 £ 13,137.50 £ 19,875.28 £
Project break-even occurs between years 2 and 3
Use 1st year of positive cash flow to calculate break-even fraction
2.98 £ years
Project cost and benefit analysis
Total Cost for the project
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
(Source: Microsoft Excel)
The total project cost will be £6,150.00 and the project will retur n monetary value from the
final quarter of the second year . Thus, the project is economically feasible.
7.2. Cost Analysis of Project Team
Task Name £1,435
Starting phase £135 .00
Determining the requirement of the project £45.00
Undertaking cost benefit analysis £45.00
Preparing charter for the project £45.00
M1: Getting approval for the charter £0 .00
Organizing and preparing phase £225 .00
Preparing the project plan £45.00
Preparing schedule £45.00
Preparing procurement plan £45.00
Preparing risk and communication plan £45.00
Recruiting team members £45.00
M2: Completion of recruitment £0.00
Carrying out phase £920.00
Preparing the design for the interface £45.00
Writing codes for the project £45.00
Code validation for the project £75.00
Developing database for the organization £170 .00
Developing functionalities of registration and £45.00
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
login
Developing search functionality £45.00
Developing record functionality £45.00
Admin help functionality £120.00
Preparing the functionality of reporting £45.00
Online help and chat functionality £45.00
Integrating the system within network £195.00
Testing the system £45.00
M3: Completion of testing £0.00
Finishing phase £155 .00
Reviewing the project £45.00
Sign off £20.00
Preparing documents £45.00
Releasing the resources £45.00
M4: Project closure £0.00
Total £1,435 .00
Table 2: Team cost analysis
8.0. Risk Analysis and Contingency Plan
8.1. Risk Management Process
8.1.1. Qualitative Risk Analysis
The qualitative risk analysis process will comprise the following stages:
a. Identification of the risks
b. Estimation of the risk probability
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
c. Estimation of the risk impact
d. Development of the risk matrix
e. Developing the risk response plan
8.1.2. Quantitative Risk Analysis
The quantitative risk analysis process will comprise the following stages :
a. Identification of area for the uncertainty
b. Assessing the cost of the identified risks
c. Determining the probability of the risk occurring
d. Calculating the cost of the potential risks
8.2. Business Risks
Market competition can be a risk for the business as there are multiple employment
apps in the United Kingdom. Another business risk can be economic risk .
8.3. Project Risks
8.3.1. Quantitative Risk Analysis
Risk 1: Lack of training
Risk 2: Stretched resource
Risk 3: Operational changes
Risk 4: Delay in project ’
For the i dentified risks the quantitative risk analysis method that can be used in this
project is t hree point estimation techniques, which will use the optimistic and pessimistic
values for determining the best estimation (Aljoh ani and Qureshi 2017 ).
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
8.4. Risk Handling
Risk
ID
Risks Likelihood Impact Risk
tolerance
Mitigation
1 Lack of training Medium High Mitigate Proper training
should be
provided to the
team members
who will be
working in this
project
(Batistič and
Kenda 2018 )
2 Delay in project
schedule
Low High Accept The team
members
should try to
maintain daily
track of their
tasks, which
will help them
to complete the
task within the
given deadline
(Hidalgo
2019 ).
3 Stretched resource Medium Medium Transfer When
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
resourc es will
be required
than the
estimated
resources then
the risk can be
transferred to
other
organizations
for supplying
more resources
(Martens and
Carvalho
2016 ).
4 Operational changes Low High Accept For any
change, the
project
organization
should make
the
communication
with the team
members to
make them
understand the
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
benefits of the
change (Butt,
Naaranoja and
Savolainen
2016 ).
9.0. Requirement List
9.1. MoSCw Analysis
MoSCow methodology could be c onsidered as the four -stage approach for the
prioritisation of project requirements which would provide the most extensive return on the
investment (Ahmad et al. 2017 ). MoSCow analysis helps all individuals included in any
project to understand what type o f work is required to be done and how that particular work
would help in increasing the revenue, decreasing the operational cost as well as improve the
productivity.
9.2. Prioritized Requirement List
MoSCow Requirements Estimates
Must
Have
ï‚· System should allow the graduates to enter their educational
details properly in the forms
ï‚· System should allow the graduate students to apply for any job
from the available applied jobs
ï‚· System should allow the graduate students to view all available
jobs in particular s ector
ï‚· 5 days
ï‚· 4 days
ï‚· 9 days
Should ï‚· System should allow admin of the system to update the filters ï‚· 7 days
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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Have needed for browsing jobs in the system
Could
Have
ï‚· System should allow the graduate students to check the list of
jobs for which they have applied
ï‚· System should allow the students to directly travel to the page
of companies from the website where they have applied for the
jobs
ï‚· 4 days
ï‚· 6 days
Will Not
Have
ï‚· System should not include the functionality of editing any
information on the app
ï‚· System should not include the functionality of viewing jobs
without registering in the application.
ï‚· 5 days
ï‚· 2 days
Table 3: MosCow Analysis
pg. 30
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
10.0 Use Case Diagram
Figure 11: Use case diagram of student
pg. 31
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Figure 12: Use case diagram of admin
pg. 32
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Figure 13: Use case diagram of manager
pg. 33
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Figure 14: Use case diagram of company head
11.0. User Stories
1. As a student, I want to use the system for entering my personal and education history
in the form so that appropriate companies would receive my CV for jobs.
2. As a student, I want to view the confirmation of applying so that I would be able to
check whether organisations are receiving my educational details.
3. As a student, I want to register in the system by providing my personal details so that
I would be able to use the appl ication for applying in jobs.
pg. 34
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
As a student, I want to view the names of companies who are providing jobs in my interested
sector so that I would be able to apply in proper companies.
12.0. Paper Prototypes
pg. 35
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
pg. 36
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
pg. 37
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
13.0. Development of Customer View Page
Iterative design as well as prototyping could be considered as the repeating cycle of
the designing, properly prototyping, testing as well as refining the various versions or even
iterations of any product. It mainly differs from the conventional design in that it is
pg. 38
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
increasingly collaborative as well as the users could refine the designs for proceeding to the
next stage.
13.1. Iterative Development
The development of the prototype would undergo several iterations to ensure that the
final product is being d eveloped properly. It should be ensured that the prototype meets all
the user requirements. In the first iteration, the analysis of earlier design of applications
would be done and preliminary prototype would be created. After creating the homepage of
the application, the register page would be created. After completion of designing the register
page of the application, the design of the login page would be created and sent for gaining
feedback. After feedback is received for the login page, the modificatio ns would be done on
the login page as per the responses received. After creating the login page, the details entry
page of the app would be created where the information of the students would be needed to
input properly. After completing this iteration, th e section of uploading verified documents
would be created where all the valid documents of students would be accepted. After
completing this stage, the final stage of allowing the students to view the data of all relevant
companies would be started.
13.2. Sprint Plan
pg. 39
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
13.3. Feedback
Project Details:
Project Name:
Job seeking mobile app Joborzo
Request #:
1
Date of Request:
05/18/2022
Requested By:
User 1
Request Description:
While user 1 was using the app of joborzo for searching the jobs, the main issue that they faced was
that the users are not being provided with the functionality of communicating with the
representatives of the companies where they are applying for jobs.
Reasons for this Change Request:
The main reason for requesting this change in the app is to ensure that proper communication
would be done among the potential candidates and the employers where the candidates would like
to work in. It would help in ensuring that the candidates only go for th e jobs whose representatives
looks rather comfortable and reassuring.
Options considered to implement the change:
pg. 40
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Adding the chat function in the app
Adding only calling function in the app
Allow the users to interact through the social media platform connected on the app
Chosen solution:
Adding the chat function in the app.
It would help in ensuring that the candidates are easily able to contact any of the potential
employers and apply for the jobs which are being advertised by the organization.
Approval Signature(s) and Date(s):
pg. 41
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
13.4. Final Prototype
pg. 42
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
pg. 43
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
pg. 44
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
pg. 45
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
pg. 46
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
14.0 Class Diagram
Figure 15: Class diagram
(Source: Microsoft Visio)
pg. 47
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
15.0 Research Paper
15.1. Introduction
Job portals nowadays have become a very significant part of student’s life. Majority
of the students are dependent on the job portals or platforms for getting a suitable and reliable
job . Therefore, this project has been conducted, where the graduates of t he United Kingdom
will get opportunities to search for jobs, apply for jobs, and to connect with various
companies. The aim of this report is to discuss the methodology that has been used in this
project . In this project both Prince 2 and Agile methodology will be used .
15.2. Methodology
Research methodology is the outline that shows how a project can be conducted. For
this project, primary data collection method will be used, where a survey has conducted with
few students or graduates in the United Kingdom to understand the requirement of the app
development project . 5 questions have been used in the survey. Prince 2 and Agile both
methodologies will be used in the app development project.
15.3. Definition
15.3.1. Prince 2
Prince 2 is a methodology of project management, which focuses on managing the
risks and resources of the project by dividing the projects into the smaller stages (Altahtooh
2020 ). This methodology also defines the roles and re sponsibilities as well as use the seven
processes for managing the life cycle of the project (Islam and Evans 2020 ). By organizing
all the logical steps of the project, Prince 2 demands for a project management framework,
which has the controlled and organ ized project plan for the initiation of this project (Shaw,
Hughes and Greenhalgh 2019 ). This also maintain the organization through the life cycle of
this project (Hasibović and Tanović 2021 ). Six factors of the Prince 2 methodology , which
pg. 48
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
can be used for measuring the performance goals as well as project tolerances are costs,
scope, risk, timescale, quality, and benefits (Mousaei and Javdani 2018 ).
15.3.2. Agile
Agile is an ability for creating as well as responding to the change i n the project life
cycle (Beerbaum 2021 ). This project management methodology deals with the turbulent and
uncertain environment (Abdelghany, Darwish and Hefni 2019) . Agile app development is the
umbrella tern, which is used for the set of practices and fr ameworks based on the principles
and values expressed in the agile app development process (Malik, Ahmad and Hussain
2019 ). Agile project management methodology is very beneficial as this is more responsive
to the requests of the users and also reduce the non -productive work in the project life cycle
(Балазюк, Сисоєва and Пилявець 2020 ).
15.4. Comparison
FEATURES PRINCE 2 AGILE
Levels of Plan
✓ ✓
Springs and Timeboxing
✓ ✓
Delivering ✓ ✓
Focus of the Methodology ✓ ✓
Planning ✓ ✓
Responding to Change ✓ ✓
The primary difference between the PRINCE2 and Agile project management
approaches is related to the fact that they perform separate functions to achieve optimum
pg. 49
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
productivity of the project. PRINCE2 is the approach which is re quired for administering the
projects, wherein Agile project management methodology is the pattern through which the
entire project activities are carried out ( Hayat et al. 2019 ). In terms of the project levels of
plan, the PRINCE2 methodology consists of three stages that are project plan, stage plan, and
team plan ( ur Rehman et al. 2018 ). In comparison to that of Agile project management
framework the level of plans includes product vision, product roadman, release plan of the
project activities, sprint p lan, and daily commitment ( Ribeiro and Domingues 2018). In terms
of evaluation the levels of plan for the agile methodology are found to be most effective since
it covers for more project activities and enhance the overall efficiency.
The timebox setting is more relevant for both the Agile and PRINCE 2 project
management methodology and works as a setting that induces a fixed limitation for a project
activity and lets other attributes like Scope vary ( Naik and Jenkins 2019 ). Within the agile
methodology, timebox and sprint is utilized effectively for administering the software
development risks associated with the project ( Sun and Schmidt 2018 ). In terms of project
delivery, PRINCE 2 is considered as a process -based strategy which entails a feasible and
scalable method for managing every type of project activity ( Esteki, Gandomani and Farsani
2020 ). This methodology enables an overall structure on how and when the primary
objectives of the project are accomplished within the provided timeline for the projec t.
However, in terms of the project delivery plan for project which follows agile management
methodology different steps are includes which enhances the project outcomes more when
compared to that of PRINCE 2 structures ( Schmitz, Mahapatra and Nerur 2018). Comparing
agile and PRINCE 2 methodologies in terms of focus of the methodology, the PRINCE 2
methodology follows the process -based approach which concentrates on the organizational
control right from the start to finish ( Zubon and Taher 2022 ). Agile meth odology follows
principles which includes value adaptability and flexibility which tends to enable accurate
pg. 50
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
responsiveness for all the necessary needs of the project. The agile methodology also enables
the project teams to deliver the activity outcomes in workable increments ( Tavera Romero et
al. 2021 ). The planning architectures for both PRINCE 2 and Agile project management
methodology sustains with several steps that helps both in demonstrating and analyzing the
project outcomes and the business needs ( M cGrath and Whitty 2020 ).
15.5. Survey Data Collection
pg. 51
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
pg. 52
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
15.6. Conclusion
This can be concluded from this study that most of the students after finishing their
college do not get jobs based on their basic principles. Multiple loopholes are there in the
education system and employment system, which lead to the insurmountable experience of
this real world. Finding a job has become very stressful for the students in the UK. Therefore,
a project will be conducted, where Joborzo employment app will be developed that will allow
the graduates in the UK to find jobs, apply for jobs and to connect with the companies. In this
study primary data collection method has been used that is survey for understanding the
requirement of the project. In the survey 5 qu estions have been used. This project will be
based on the Prince 2 and Agile methodology.
pg. 53
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
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17. 0. Appendices
17.1. Appendix A – Slide Deck
17.2. Appendix B – Survey for Research Data Collection
User Kindly
specify
your
gender.
Are you
presentl
y
looking
for any
job?
Are you
familiar
with job
searc hin
g app?
What features do you want from
a job searching app?
Do you
think your
employmen
t chances
would be
increased
through job
employmen
t app?
User 1 Male Yes Yes Functionality of chatting Yes
User 2 Male No Yes Functionality of viewing details
of any job
Yes
User 3 Female Yes No Functionality of chatting Yes
User 4 Female Yes No Functionality of searching for job Yes
User 5 Prefer not
to say
Yes No Functionality of searching for job No
User 6 Male Yes Yes Functionality of chatting Yes
User 7 Female No Yes Functionality of viewing details
of any job
No
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