Task Solutions of Commercial and Industrial Construction System

Task Solutions of Commercial and Industrial Construction System

Task 2 – Commercial & Industrial Construction System
University of East London
Da …

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Task 2 – Commercial & Industrial Construction System
University of East London
Date: 06/ 05/2022
Task 2 – Commercial & Industrial Construction System
Structural Material for The Skeletal Frame
Skeletal frames are currently being utilized in the construction of multi -storey buildings like the
proposed 5- storey building for school extension . Its components include a network of columns,
connecting beams and girders that provides support to the interior floors and external walls while
transmitting all the loads to the foundation (Rajput, 2021) .
A number of materials are available for use in skeletal frames including steel, reinforced
concrete, wood and bamboo. However, considering factors such as strength and the weight of
materials, steel remains an appropriate material for the skeletal frames. Steel frame construction
remains cost effective and sustainabl e for all levels of building constructions from low -rise to
high rise projects.
Steel Skeletal Structure
The principal components of a steel frame are the columns, girder and the beams which ensures
its stability. The girders form the main horizontal su pport for the structure and are crossed with I –
beams connected to columns which then transmits the loads to the foundation.
Steel Girders Steel Beam
The Likely Type of Foundations & The Type Of Connect ions To The Superstructure
It is important to note that the type of foundation to be used for the structure mainly depends on
its load and the bearing capacity of the soil in which the building stands. A 5 -storey building has
considerably large amount of load therefore good foundation is required . Good soils will require
strip or pad foundations while weak soils will require deep pile foundations. According to the
details provided, the soil on the ground is good strong sandy gravel with no ‘specialist’
foundations required. Therefore, a reinforced concrete bearing pad foundation is adequate for
this structure.
The foundation consists of reinforced concrete fo oting fixed to the pier c olumn with a baseplate
which can then be joined to the st eel columns in superstructure.
Reinforced Footing
The steel columns are joined to the foundation using anc hor bolts which links it to the base plate
of the foundation. It is important that the base plate and the anchor bolts are designed to ensure
that they can withstand the load from the superstructure without failure.
Superstructure column joined to foundation via anchor bolts
External Wall Cladding and Thermal Insulation
Wall cladding will be attached to the skeletal structure without any contribution on the
stability of the building but helps in the structural load transfer. The wall claddings help in
the transfer of impact loads , wind loads and self -weight to the skeleta l system. There are
many materials available for wall cladding like curtain walls, masonry walls and the light
steel infill walls.
The use of light steel infill walls in multi storey framed constructions have gained polarity
over the past years due to its light weight and the ease of installation. Basically, the light steel
infill walls create a rapid dry envelope that supports the ex ternal cladding to be installed
(SteelConstruction, 2022) . Also, the same can be used for both external cladding and
partition of the internal rooms of the classrooms to required dimensions.
Components of a light steel infill wall panel
Infill walls are made of a bottom ‘track’ that is attached to the floor. There is a top ‘track’
attached to the underside of the floor slab or edge beam at the top. There are vertical studs
fitted between the bottom and top and tracks and are designed such that they can resist wind
load in bending. Looking at the sizes, the light steel sections normally come in 75 to 150 mm
in depth and are cold roll formed from galvanized steel strip with t hickness between 1.0 to
3.2 mm. The span of the i nfill wall panels normally ranges from 2.4 to 5 m between floors.
During installations, horizontal C sections are normally utilized both for lintels and cills
existing below and above window openings so as to transfer loads back to the studs (Way,
2021) .
Compon ents of a light steel infill wall panel Large window openings allowed
Thermal performance
To provide a good building conditions for the intended purpose, b uilding regulation stan da rds
requires that that appropriate insulation is provided on the infi ll claddings so as to maintain or
control the temperatures in the building space. According to Roque & Santos (2017), t he light
steel infill wall panel must be designed to meet the thermal insulation requirement for the
building including
I. The need to prov ide appropriate levels of thermal insulation that enable reduction of heat
loss through the wall. The insulation can be achieved by placing a mineral wool between
the C -sections and the external part of the infill provided with closed cell insulation.
II. The need to minimize thermal bridging by ensuring effective insulation continuity.
III. Providing suitable vapour barriers to minimize the condensation risks.
IV. The design must also meet the criterion for maximum air leakage for the school building
by carrying out a ir pressurization tests.
Building Regulations influences the comfort & well -being of the occupants of the new
College with respect to the following:
Reduction of CO2
The Building Bul letin 101 of the British building regulations provided standards for ventilation,
indoor air quality and thermal comfort required in school buildings. According to the guidelines,
the adequate ventilations must be provided to avoid overheating in the College building. This
means that the design must consider providing the method of air quality control mechanisms that
is in line with the green building technologies to ensure zero carbon emissions. Utilizing the
natural ventilation system in buildings is one of the ways of reducing the CO2 emissions due to
reduc ed energy used by electric ventilation equipment. However, the natural ventilation system
may not be enough for classrooms especially during extreme temperature changes therefore
affecting comfort of the occupants
Acoustic Insulation
Building Bulletin 93 provided the performance standards of the college building in terms of
acoustic or noise regulations (Gov.UK, 2018) . According to the regulation, each room of the
school should be designed such that it is insulated against noise so as not to experience any
disturbance by noise during use . This enhances the leaning conditions and the wellbeing of the
students in the college.
Fire protection
Building regulations requires that schools undertake risk assessments to identify the general
requirements of fir e precautions to safeguard th e safety of students and other occupants of the
college in case of fire as well as the safe means of escape from the building. The design of the
building must provide for fire exist points and safety facilities like fire exting uishers and
sprinklers to enhance the safety of the occupants.
TWO of the above could be achieved within the structure of the new College building by
the use of labelled images and a brief description.
Use of Solar Panels and Heat Pumps
The reduction of CO2 can be achieved through adoption of green building technologies in the
building such as the use of solar energy to power the building through installation of solar panels
and using heat pumps to contr ol temperatures in the building (Li, 2021) .
Heat pum ps offer are energy -efficient compared to air conditioners for all climates
(Bianco,2020) . Making the heat pumps to utilize the solar energy will greatly reduce the carbon
emissions during the building operation as provided by the new UK regulations on CO2
Heat pump functioning
Double Wa ll Partition for noise insulation
The used of doubl e wall is effective achieving the acoustic insulation in the building. This
method involves the use of plaster boards on fibre boards on laths on both the faces, with sound
absorbing blanket placed in in between. This method of noise insulation can therefore be used as
partitions in the college building to prevent noise disturbance in adjacent rooms during learning
(Richardson, 2019) .
sound absorbing blanket
fibre boards
Double Wall Partition for the Rooms
Richardson, R. (2019). Regulation of school acoustic design in the UK: recent revision of
Building and School Premises Regulations and their application . Home.
SteelConstruction. (2022). Infill Walling . steelconstruction.info.
Way, A. G. (2021). Light Steel Framing and Modular Construction: Light Steel Infill Walls .
The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) UK Global Steel Expertise. https://steel –
Li, Y., Rong, Y., Ahmad, U. M., Wang, X., Zuo, J., & Mao, G. (2021). A comprehensive
review on green buildings res earch: bibliometric analysis during 1998 –2018.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(34), 46196 -46214.
Bianco, V., Marchitto, A., Scarpa, F., & Tagliafico, L. A. (2020). Heat pumps for buildings
heating: Energy, environmental, and economic issue s. Energy & Environment, 31(1),
116 -129.
Roque, E., & Santos, P. (2017). The effectiveness of thermal insulation in lightweight steel –
framed walls with respect to its position. Buildings, 7(1), 13.
Gov.UK. (2018, July 20). Notes on acoustics, lighting and ventilation in schools . GOV.UK.
https://www.gov.uk/guidance/notes -on -acoustics -lighting -and -ventilation -in-schools
Rajput, K. (2021, June 2). Skeleton frame | What is building skeleton | What is steel structure
building | Use of steel frame Structures| Advantages & disadvantage of steel frame .
CivilJungle. https://civiljungle.com/skeleton -frame/

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